2018
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Numerical Investigation of Geometric Parameters Effect of the Labyrinth Weir on the Discharge Coefficient
2
2
Weirs, as overflow structures, are extensively applied for the measurement of flow, its diversion, and control in the open canals. Labyrinth weir as a result of more effective length than conventional weirs allows passing more discharge in narrow canals. Determination of the design criteria for the practical application of these weirs needs more examination. Weir angle and its position relative to the flow direction are the most effective parameters on the discharge coefficient. In this article, Fluent software was applied as a virtual laboratory, and extensive experiments were carried out to survey the effect of geometry on the labyrinth weir discharge coefficient. The variables were the height of weir, the angle of the weir, and the discharge. The discharge coefficients acquired from these experiments were then compared with the corresponding values obtained from the usual rectangular sharpcrested weir experiments. Comparison of the results indicated that in all cases with different vertex angle, flow discharge coefficients are in a satisfactory range for relative effective head less than 0.3. The discharge coefficient is reduced for relative effective head more than 0.3 due to the collision of water napes. It revealed that the higher the weir, the more discharge capacity. As a result, the labyrinth weirs have a better performance in comparison with the common sharpcrested.
1

1
9


Somayeh
Emami
Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
somayehemami70@gmail.com


Hadi
Arvanaghi
Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
arvanaghi.hadi@gmail.com


Javad
Parsa
Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
jparsa@tabrizu.ac.ir
Labyrinth Weir
Discharge Coefficient
Computational fluid dynamics
Fluent
[[1] Hirt, C. W. and Nichols, B. D. (1981). “Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free 274 Boundaries”, Journal of Comput. Phys, Vol. 39(1), pp. 201225.##[2] Kumar, S., Ahmad,Z., Mansoor,T and Himanshu,S. K.(2013). “A New Approach to analyze the flow over sharp crested curved plan form weir.” International Journal of Recent Technology and Enginnering (IJRTE), Vol. 2,pp. 22773878.##[3] Hay, N., Taylor, G. (1970). “Performance and design of labyrinth weirs.” ASCE, Journal of Hydraulics Division, Vol. 96(11), pp. 2337–57.##[4] Crookston B. M., Paxson, G. S. and Savage, B. M. (2012). “Hydraulic performance of labyrinth weirs for high headwater ratios.4th IAHR”. International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Porto, Portugal, pp. 1–8.##[5] Shaghaghian R. S., Sharif, M. T. (2015). “Numerical modeling of sharpcrested triangular plan form weirs using FLUENT.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 8(34), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i34/78200.##[6] Emiroglu, M. E., Kisi, O. (2013). “Prediction of discharge coefficient for trapezoidal labyrinth side weir using a neurofuzzy approach.” Water Resources Management, Vol. 27(5), pp. 14731488.##[7] Seamons, T. R. (2014). “LabyrinthWeir: A look into geometric variation and its effect on efficiency and design method predictions.” M. S. thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UT.##[8] Roushangar, K., Alami, M. T., MajediAsl, M. and Shiri, J. (2017). “Modeling discharge coefficient of normal and inverted orientation labyrinth weirs using machine learning techniques.” ISH Journal of hydraulic engineering. Homepages://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tish20.##[9] Roushangar, K., Alami, M.T., Shiri, J. and MajediAsl, M. (2017). “Determining discharge coefficient of labyrinth and arced labyrinth weirs using support vector machine.” Journal of Hydrology Research, Available Online: 2017 Mar, nh2017214; DOI: 10.2166/nh. 2017.214.##[10] Papageorgakis G. C., Assanis, D. N. (1999). “Comparison of linear and nonlinear RNGbased models for incompressible turbulent flows.” Journal of Numerical Heat Transfer, University of Michigan, Vol. 35, pp. 122.##[11] Wilcox., David, C. (2006).“Turbulence Modeling for CFD.” DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada, CA, 270 USA.##[12] Zahraeifard, V. and Talebeydokhti, N. (2012). “Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow over Labyrinth Spillways/Weirs.” International Journal of Science and Tecnology, Vol. 22(5), pp.17341741.##[13] Anoymous. (2006). “Fluent 6.3 User’s Guide. Chap. 23. Fluent Incorporated.” Lebanon.##[14] Danish Hydraulic Institute website (DHI)<http://ballastwater.dhigroup.com/ 268 /media/publications/news/2009/0705 9ns3.pdf>. (Visited Aug. 17, 2010).##[15] Savage, B. M., Frizell, K. and Crowder, J. (2004). “Brains versus Brawn: The Changing World of 265 Hydraulic Model Studies”. Proc. of the ASDSO Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, USA 266.##]
Internal Structure Features of Asphalt Mixture for Field Samples
2
2
Asphalt mixture is heterogeneous in nature; consequently, macroscopic parameters alone cannot describe the mechanical behavior of the mixture. In recent years, the arrangement of the aggregate particles in terms of spatial and directional distributions, and contact points are contemplated as the internal structure of asphalt. The main purpose of this article is to examine the microstructural characteristics of asphalt cores applying 2D images. Comparison between the internal structure features in the laboratory samples and the Field samples is indicated in this paper. The results reveal that the survey of microstructural characteristics of asphalt cores by image processing provides new and functional information. This finding indicates that the number of contact points in cores is close to the lab samples that have been made at 45 to 65 blows on each end of the sample.
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10
20


Mahmood Reza
Keymanesh
Associate Professor, North Tehran Branch, Payam Noor University
Iran
mrkeymanesh@pnu.ac.ir


Ali
Nasrollahtabar
Department of Civil, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 193953697, Tehran, Iran
Iran
nasrollahtabar@pnu.ac.ir


Nooshin
Shahryari
M.Sc. Graguated, Faculty of Engineering, Payam Noor University
Iran
n_shahryari@yahoo.com
Aggregate Particles
Internal Structure
Core Samples
Contact Points
[[1] E. Masad, B. Muhunthan, N. Shashidhar, T. Harman “Application of Digital Image Processing to Quantitative Study of Asphalt Concrete Microstructure” Transportation Research Record 1492/ 1995 p.53–60.##[2] Linbing Wang “Mechanics of Asphalt Microstructure and Micromechanics” The McGrawHill Companies, Inc, 2011.##[3] Jing Hu, Zhendong Qian, Yang Liu, Meng Zhang “Hightemperature failure in asphalt mixtures using microstructural investigation and image analysis” Construction and Building Materials 84 (2015) 136–145.##[4] Hainian Wang, Ran Zhang, Yu Chen, Zhanping You, Jun Fang “Study on microstructure of rubberized recycled hot mix asphalt based Xray CT technology” Construction and Building Materials 121 (2016) 177–184.##[5] Xu Huining, Tan Yiqiu, Yao Xingao “Xray computed tomography in hydraulics of asphalt mixtures: Procedure, accuracy, and application” Construction and Building Materials 108 (2016) 10–21.##[6] Magdy Shaheen, Adil AlMayah, Susan Tighe “A novel method for evaluating hot mix asphalt fatigue damage: Xray computed tomography” Construction and Building Materials 113 (2016) 121–133.##[7] N.A. Hassan, R. Khan, J. Raaberg, D. Lo Presti “Effect of mixing time on reclaimed asphalt mixtures: An investigation by means of imaging techniques” Construction and Building Materials 99 (2015) 54–61.##[8] M. Emin Kutay, Edith Arambula, Nelson Gibson and Jack Youtcheff “Threedimensional image processing methods to identify and characterize aggregates in compacted asphalt mixtures International Journal of Pavement Engineering” Vol. 11, No. 6, December 2010, 511–528.##[9] Qinglin Guo, Yanshan Bian, Lili Li, Yubo Jiao, Jinglin Tao, Chengxiu Xiang “Stereological estimation of aggregate gradation using digital image of asphalt mixture” Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 458–466.##[10] Leonardo Bruno, Giuseppe Parla, Clara Celauro “Image analysis for detecting aggregate gradation in asphalt mixture from planar images” Construction and Building Materials 28 (2012) 21–30.##[11] E. Masad, B. Muhunthan, N. Shashidhar, T. Harman “Internal Structure Characterization of Asphalt Concrete Using Image Analysis” journal of computing in civil engineering / April 1999 88–95.##[12] Eyad Masad, M. Emin Kutay, “Characterization of the Internal Structure of Asphalt Mixtures,” Transportation Research Circular EC161, January 2012, pp216.##[13] Iuri S. Bessa, Veronica T.F. Castelo Branco, Jorge B. Soares, “Evaluation of different digital image processing software for aggregates and hot mix asphalt characterizations,” Construction and Building Materials 37, 2012, pp 370–378.##[14] Aaron R. Coenen, M. Emin Kutay, Nima Roohi Sefidmazgi & Hussain U. Bahia “Aggregate structure characterisation of asphalt mixtures using twodimensional image analysis,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Sep 2012, pp 433454.##[15] Nima Roohi Sefidmazgi, Laith Tashman & Hussain Bahia, “Internal structure characterization of asphalt mixtures for rutting performance using imaging analysis,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, 24 Apr 2012, pp 2137.##[16] Xu Cai, Duanyi Wang, “Evaluation of rutting performance of asphalt mixture based on the granular media theory and aggregate contact characteristics” Road Materials and Pavement Design, May 2013, pp 325340.##[17] A. T. Papagiannakis and E. A. Masad, “Pavement Design and Materials” The John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 552 pages, February 2008.##[18] “A Manual for Design of Hot Mix Asphalt with Commentary” NCHRP Report 673, Transportation Research Board Washington D.C. 2011.##[19] Nima Roohi Sefidmazgi, “Defining Effective Aggregate Skeleton in Asphalt Mixture Using Digital Imaging,” Master of Science Civil&Environmental Engineering, University of WisconsinMadison,2011.##[20] Baha Vural KOK, Mehmet YILMAZ, İlyas TURHAN “Comparison of the Volumetric Properties and Stabilities of Field and Laboratory Compacted Asphalt Concrete” 5th Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, Istanbul, 1315th June 2012.##]
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Jacket Type Offshore Platforms
2
2
Most of oil and gas offshore platforms are located in the seismic regains. Therefore, Seismic vulnerability evaluation of the offshore platforms is one of the essential vital issues in the structural systems. In this article, jacket type offshore platforms are examined by incorporating the pushover analyses and nonlinear time history analyses, in such a way that, first some push over analyses are performed to detect the more critical members of the jacket platform in consonance with the range of their plastic deformations. Subsequently, nonlinear time history analyses are performed, concentrating on the critical members, to examine the vulnerability of the jacket platform under intensive earthquake loads. Pursuant to the numerical results, the combination of the push over analyses and nonlinear time history analyses proposes a reliable and swift seismic assessment procedure to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of the offshore platforms. Moreover, seismic vulnerability of the offshore structures is dependent on the critical member locations and their load bearing situations in the offshore structures.
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33


Somayyeh
Karimiyan
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran
Iran
s_karimiyan@iiau.ac.ir
Jacket Offshore Platform
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Seismic Assessment
Pushover Analysis
[[1] Asgarian, B., Aghakouchack, A. (2004). “Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Jacket Type Offshore Structures Subjected to Earthquake Using Fiber Elements.” Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Eng. Conference, Vancouver, Canada.##[2] Asgarian, B., Ajamy, A. (2006). “Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Offshore Structures, Using Incremental Dynamic Analysis.” Proceedings of the 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Eng. (100th Anniversary Earthquake Conference), San Francisco.##[3] Banon, H., Bea, R. G., Bruen, F. J., Cornell, C. A., Krieger, W. F., Stewart, D. A. (1994). “Assessing Fitness for Purpose of Offshore Platforms: I) Analytical Methods and Inspections.” Journal of Structural Eng, Vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 35953612.##[4] Banon, H., Bea, R. G.; Bruen, F. J.; Cornell, C. A.; Krieger, W. F. and Stewart, D. A. (1994). “Assessing Fitness for Purpose of Offshore Platforms: II) Risk Management, Maintenance, and Repair.” Journal of Structural Eng, Vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 36133633.##[5] Kamil, H. (1978). “Nonlinear design of offshore structures under extreme loading conditions.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, pp. 3948.##[6] Karimiyan, S. (2008). “Seismic Reliability Analysis of Offshore Structures by Using Nonlinear Time History Analyses.” Master Thesis under supervision of Dr. Mahmood Hosseini, Submitted to Civil Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tehran South Branch of the Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.##[7] Kawano, Kenji., Kukusako, Hisasi., Iida, Takesi. (2003).“Seismic Response Evaluations of an Offshore Structure with Uncertainties.” Proceedings of ISOPE2003, Thirteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol. 4, pp. 473479.##[8] Lee, Hsien Hua. (1998). “Seismic and vibration mitigation for the Atype offshore template platform system.” Structural Eng and Mechanics, Vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 347362.##[9] Ueda, S., Shiraishi, S. (1979). “Observation of oscillation of a deep water platform and the ground during earthquakes.” Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Offshore Technology Conference, pp. 22252234.##[10] Watt, B. J. (1978). “Earthquake survivability of concrete platforms.” Offshore Technology Conference, Proceedings of Tenth Annual, pp. 957973.##[11] Zayas, V. A., Shing, P.S. B., Mahin, S. A., Popov, E. P. (1981). “Inelastic structural modeling of braced offshore platforms for seismic loading.” Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California Berkeley, 148 pages.##[12] Chung, N. T., Anh, L.h., (2015). “Dynamic analysis of Jacket type offshore structure under impact of wave and wind using Stoke’s second order wave theory.” Journal of marine sceince and thecnology, Vol. 15, No. 2. DOI: 10.15625/18593097/15/2/6507.##[13] Zolfaghari, M. R., Ajamy, A., Asgarian, B., (2015). “A simplified method in comparison with comprehensive interaction incremental dynamic analysis to assess seismic performance of jackettype offshore platforms.” International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering (IJASE),Vol. 7, Issue 4, pp 353–364.##[14] Junbo, J. (2016). “Influence of hydrodynamic forces and ice during earthquakes.” Modern Earthquake Engineering, pp. 361378.##[15] LotfollahiYaghin, M. A., Ahmadi, H., Tafakhor, H. (2016). “Seismic responses of an offshore jackettype platform incorporated with tuned liquid dampers.” Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 19, Issue 2.##[16] Kandasamy, R., Cui, F.Townsend, N., Chiang F., C., Guo, J., Shenoi, A., Xiong, Y. (2016). “A review of vibration control methods for marine offshore structures.” Ocean Engineering, Vol. 127, PP. 279297.##]
Analysis of Flow Pattern with Low Reynolds Number around Different Shapes of Bridge Piers, and Determination of Hydrodynamic Forces, applying Open Foam Software
2
2
In many cases, a set of obstacles, such as bridge piers and abutments, are located in the river waterway. Bridge piers disrupt the river’s normal flow, and the created turbulence and disturbance causes diversion of flow lines and creates rotational flow. Geometric shape and position of the piers with respect to flow direction and also the number of piers and their spacing are effective in changing the riverflow conditions, such as the formation of vortices, their breakdown and hydrodynamic forces exerted on the piers. This article has been performed by applying the twodimensional, opensource, OpenFOAM software. For this purpose, after selecting the grid size in GAMBIT software, different pier shapes were examined , considering different Reynolds numbers, and formation of the flow pattern, Strouhal number, vortex magnitude, and drag and lift coefficients for each pier shape were specified. Results for three different pier shapes indicated that in Reynolds number of 200, the highest drag coefficient (1.82) and maximum flow velocity (1.55 m/s) correlated to the square pier. The lowest drag coefficient (0.46) was calculated for the rectangular pier (having a semicircular edge on one side and a sharpnose edge on the other side) when the flow collides with the semicircular edge. The least drag and lift forces are exerted to the rectangular pier, as compared to other pier shapes. The lowest lift coefficient (0.012) was obtained for a rectangular pier. On the other hand, the position of the sharpnosed edge in the wake region caused the vortex shedding to occur at a greater distance from the pier.
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48


Hojat
Karami
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
hkarami@semnan.ac.ir


Saeed
Farzin
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
saeed.farzin@semnan.ac.ir


Mohammad
Badeli
Graduated MSc. student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
mohammadbadeli70@gmail.com


SayedFarhad
Mousavi
Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
fmousavi@profs.semnan.ac.ir
Bridge Piers and Abutments
Flow Pattern
Drag and Lift Forces
Vortex Shedding
Wake Region
OpenFOAM
[[1] Fredsoe, J., Hansen, E.A. (1987). “Lift forces on pipelines in steady flow.’’ Journal of Waterway, Port, Costal and Ocean Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 113, pp. 139155.##[2] Park, J., Kwon, K., Choi, H. (1998). “Numerical solutions of flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number up to 160.’’ KSME International Journal, Vol. 12, No 6, pp. 12001205.##[3] Saha, A.K., Biswas, G., Muralidhar, K. (2003). “Threedimensional study of flow past a square cylinder at low Reynolds number.’’ International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 24, pp. 5466.##[4] Zhao, M., Cheng, L., Teng, B., Liang, D. (2005). “Numerical simulation of viscous flow past two circular cylinders of different diameters.’’ Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 27, pp. 3955.##[5] Zhang, L.T., Gay, M. (2008). “Imposing rigidity constraints on immersed objects in unsteady fluid flows.’’ Computational Mechanics, Vol. 42, pp. 357370.##[6] Sami Akoz, M., Salih Kirkgoz, M. (2009). “Numerical and experimental analysis of the flow around a horizontal wallmounted circular cylinder.’’ Transaction of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 33, pp. 189215.##[7] Lee, T., Kim, Y., Chang, Y., Choi, J. (2009). “Determination of drag and lift forces around a circular cylinder by using a modified immersed finiteelement method.’’ Journal of Korean Physical Society, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 10681071.##[8] Gera, B., Pavan, K.S., Singh, R.K. (2010). “CFD analysis of 2D unsteady flow around a square cylinder.’’ International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 602610.##[9] Omid Naeini, S.T., Fazli, M. (2010). “Numerical modeling and physical observation of the effect of shape of bridge piers on the imposed dynamic forces.’’ Civil Engineering Infrastructures, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 741751. (In Persian).##[10] Bai, H., Li, J. (2011). “Numerical simulation of flow over a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number.’’ Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 255260, pp. 942946.## [11] Keramati Farhoud, R., Amiralaie, S., Jabbari, G.H., Amiralaie, S. (2012). “Numerical study of unsteady laminar flow around a circular cylinder.’’ Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 6367.##[12] Vikram, C.K., Krishne Gowda, Y.T., Ravindra, H.V. (2014). “Analysis by CFD for flow past circular and square cylinder.’’ International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 7276.##[13] The Open Source CFD Toolbox OpenFOAM. (2010). GNU Free Documentation License.##[14] Sarreshtedari, A., Varedi S.R. (2011). “Fluid flow modeling and heat transfer by OpenFOAM software.” Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.##[15] Sumer, B.M., Fredsoe, J. (1997). “Hydrodynamics around cylindrical structures.’’ World Scientific Publication Co., Ltd., Singapore.##[16] Roshko, A. (1961). “Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at very high Reynolds number.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 10, pp. 345356.##[17] Schewe, G. (1983). “On the force fluctuations acting on a circular cylinder in cross flow from subcritical up to transcritical Reynolds numbers.’’ Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 133, pp. 265285.##]
Influence of NanoSilica and Silica Fume in the Steel Corrosion Embedded in Concrete
2
2
Corrosion of steel is one of the essential potential dangers and threats in concrete structures. Corrosion of steel embedded in reinforced concrete plays a key role in reducing the strength and durability of reinforced concrete. Several studies have proposed that alternative approaches to enhancing the performance of reinforced concrete and its resistance to corrosion. In this article, the results of steel corrosion embedded in reinforced concrete with silica fume and Nanosilica particles are presented. In the testing phase, samples with a mixture of these particles ranging from 0 to 133 grams were generated, and their performance was compared applying Corrosion Potential (OCP), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Linear Polarization (LPR), and TOEFL polarization tests. The results demonstrate that silica fume is effective in reducing the permeability of the concrete against malicious (adverse) ions, but nanosilica had far satisfying performance in reducing the corrosion rate of steel embedded in concrete.
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49
57


Hossein
Bakhshi
Department of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
Iran
h.bakhshi@hsu.ac.ir


Reza
Ahmadi
Department of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
Iran
reza.ahmadi1394@yahoo.com
Reinforced Concrete
Steel Corrosion
Nanosilica
Silica Fume
Electrochemical Tests
[[1] Bertolini, Luca, et al. Corrosion of steel in concrete: prevention, diagnosis, repair. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.##[2] Bezerra E, Joaquim A, Savastano H. The effect of different mineral additions andsynthetic fiber contents on properties of cement based composites. CemConcrCompos 2006; 28(6):555–63.##[3] EskandariNaddaf, Hamid, M. LezgyNazargah, and Hossein Bakhshi. "Optimal Methods for Retrofitting Corrosiondamaged Reinforced Concrete Columns." Procedia Computer Science 101 (2016): 262271.##[4] Monticelli C, Frignani A, Trabanelli G. A study on corrosion inhibitors forconcrete application. CemConcr Res 2000; 30(4):635–42 [5] Güneyisi, E., et al., Corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel embedded in chloride contaminated concretes with and without metakaolin. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2013. 45(1): p. 12881295.##[6] Shreir LL. 1.05  Basic Concepts of Corrosion. In: Stott BCGLLRS, editor. Shreir's Corrosion. Oxford: Elsevier; 2010. p. 89100.##[7] Gastaldini, A. L. G., et al. "Total shrinkage, chloride penetration, and compressive strength of concretes that contain clearcolored rice husk ash." Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014): 369377..##[8] Kim, H. K., I. W. Nam, and H. K. Lee. "Enhanced effect of carbon nanotube on mechanical and electrical properties of cement composites by incorporation of silica fume." Composite Structures 107 (2014): 6069.##[9] Sobhani Kavkani H.R., Mortezaei A., Naghizadeh R. 2016. The effect of metakaolin, silica fume and nanosilica on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement mortar, Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 13(2): 5061.##[10] Dotto, J. M. R., De Abreu, A. G., Dal Molin, D. C. C., & Müller, I. L. (2004). Influence of silica fume addition on concretes physical properties and on corrosion behavior of reinforcement bars. Cement and concrete composites, 26(1), 3139.##[11] Choi YS, Kim JG, Lee KM. Corrosion behavior of steel bar embedded in fly ash concrete. Corrosion Science. 2006; 48(7):17331745.##[12] Ahmad, Shamsad. "Reinforcement corrosion in concrete structures, its monitoring and service life prediction––a review." Cement and Concrete Composites 25.4 (2003): 459471.##[13] Yamato, Takeshi, Yukio Emoto, and Masashi Soeda. "Strength and freezingandthawing resistance of concrete incorporating condensed silica fume." ACI Special Publication 91 (1986).##[14] Johnston, Colin D. "Durability of high early strength silica fume concretes subjected to accelerated and normal curing." ACI Special Publication 132 (1992).##[15] W. E. Ellis Jr., E. H. Rigg and W. B. Butler, Comparative results of utilization of fly ash, silica fume and GGBFS in reducing the chloride permeability of concrete, in Durability of Concrete, ACI SP126,PP. 44358(Detroit, Michigan, 1991).##[16] Neville, A. (1995). Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview.Materials and Structures, 28(2), 6370.##[17] Mehta, P. K., & Monteiro, P. J. (2006). Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials (Vol. 3). New York: McGrawHill; p: 140230##[18] Fontana, M. G. (2005). Corrosion engineering. Tata McGrawHill Education; p: 752##[19] Kakooei, S., Akil, H. M., Dolati, A., & Rouhi, J. (2012). The corrosion investigation of rebar embedded in the fibers reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 564570.##[20] Shi, J. J., & Sun, W. (2014). Effects of phosphate on the chlorideinduced corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel in mortars. Cement and Concrete Composites, 45, 166175.##[21] Stansbury, E. E., & Buchanan, R. A. (2000). Fundamentals of electrochemical corrosion. ASM international; p: 155318##[22] Gowers KR, Millard SG. Onsite linear polarization resistance mapping of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion Science. 1993; 35(5–8):1593600v.##[23] Mofidi, J. (2007). Principles of Corrosion and Protection of Metals. 1 nd: Tehran University Press; p: 353395[full text in Persian].##]
Effects of Ground Motion Directionality on the Seismic Behavior of Midrise Concrete Buildings with Considering Unequal LiveLoad Distribution in Height
2
2
The incident angle of ground motion is one of the sources of uncertainty in the seismic response of buildings. Moreover, understanding the structural response to the impose ground motion may cause significant changes in the maximum response of buildings. In order to investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of orthogonal components of earthquake strong motion on the structural responses, three 15story buildings were analyzed in this study using the timehistory method. A significant live load (750 kg/m2) is imposed at different vertical levels of the structures. The imposed load was combined with ground motion excitations in the range of 0 to 90 degrees. The response of structure was investigated using roof drift index and interstory drift ratio. Results demonstrate the orientation of seismic excitation and considering the maximum values of roof drift index, which correspond to the critical direction increase roof drift index between 8 to 12 percent. Furthermore, the interstory drift ratio increased between 30 to 33 percent due to the orientation of excitation and considering the maximum values of the interstory drift ratio, which correspond to the critical direction.
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69


Hamidreza
Noori
M.Sc. of Earthquake Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
hnoori85@gmail.com


Mohammad Mahdi
Memarpour
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
memarpour@eng.ikiu.ac.ir
Directionality
Concrete 3D Frame
MidRise
Irregularity
Incident Angle
[[1] Penzien, J., Watabe, M. (1974) “Characteristics of 3dimensional earthquake ground motions”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 3(4):365–73.##[2] Menun, C., Der Kiureghian, A.(1998) “A Replacement for the 30%, 40%, and SRSS Rules for Multicomponent Seismic Analysis”. Earthquake Spectra, 14(1):153–63.##[3] Wilson, EL., Suharwardy, I., Habibullah, A. (1995). “A Clarification of the Orthogonal Effects in a Three‐Dimensional Seismic Analysis”. Earthquake Spectra, 11(4):659–66.##[4] Davila, F., Cruz, E. (2004). “STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INPLAN ASYMMETRY IN MULTISTORY BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO UNI AND BIDIRECTIONAL SEISMIC MOTIONS”. In Canada; 2004.##[5] Athanatopoulou, AM. (2005). “Critical orientation of three correlated seismic components”. Engineering Structures, 27(2):301–312.##[6] Rigato, AB., Medina, RA. (2007). “Influence of angle of incidence on seismic demands for inelastic singlestorey structures subjected to bidirectional ground motions”. Engineering Structures, 29(10):2593–601.##[7] Cantagallo, C., Camata, G., Spacone, E. (2012). “The Effect of the Earthquake Incidence Angle on Seismic Demand of Reinforced Concrete Structures”. In Lisboa; 2012.##[8] Emami, AR., Halabian, AM. (2015). “Spatial distribution of ductility demand and damage index in 3D RC frame structures considering directionality effects: Spatial Distribution of Ductility Demand and Damage Index”. Struct Des Tall Spec Build. 24(16):941–61.##[9] Reyes, JC. Kalkan, E. (2013). “Significance of Rotating Ground Motions on Behavior of Symmetric and AsymmetricPlan Structures: Part I”. SingleStory Structures. Earthq Spectra. 31(3):1591–612.##[10] MHUD. (2014). “Iranian National Building Code, part 10, steel structure design”. Tehran: Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.##[11] BHRC. (2014). “Iranian code of practice for seismic resistance design of buildings: Standard no. 2800 (4th edition)”. Building and Housing Research Center.##[12] MHUD. (2014). “Iranian National Building Code, part 6, loads on buildings”. Tehran: Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.##[13] Baker, JW., (2007). “Quantitative Classification of NearFault Ground Motions Using Wavelet Analysis”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 97(5):1486–501.##[14] Berkeley, CSI., (2015) . “Computer Program ETABS Ultimate 2015”. Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California.##]
Hybrid Improved Dolphin Echolocation and Ant Colony Optimization for Optimal Discrete Sizing of Truss Structures
2
2
This paper presents a robust hybrid improved dolphin echolocation and ant colony optimization algorithm (IDEACO) for optimizing the truss structures with discrete sizing variables. The dolphin echolocation (DE) is inspired by the navigation and hunting behavior of dolphins. An improved version of dolphin echolocation (IDE), as the main engine, is proposed and uses the positive attributes of ant colony optimization (ACO) to increase the efficiency of the IDE. Here, ACO is employed to improve the precision of the global optimization solution. In the proposed hybrid optimization method, the balance between exploration and exploitation process was the main factor to control the performance of the algorithm. IDEACO algorithm performance is tested on several problems of benchmarks discrete truss structure optimization. The results indicate the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm in optimum design and rate of convergence in comparison with other metaheuristic optimization methods, so IDEACO offers a good degree of competitiveness against other existing metaheuristic methods.
1

70
87


Mohammad
Arjmand
Department of Civil Engineering, Bozorgmehr University of Qaenat, Qaen, Iran
Iran
m.arjmand@buqaen.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Sheikhi Azqandi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bozorgmehr University of Qaenat, Qaen, Iran
Iran
mojtabasheikhi@gmail.com


Mahdi
Delavar
Department of Civil Engineering, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran
Iran
m.dvr71@gmail.com
Hybrid Optimization Algorithm
Metaheuristic
Discrete Variables
Dolphin Echolocation
[[1] Hare, W., Nutini, J., Tesfamariam, S. (2013). “A survey of nongradient optimization methods in structural engineering.” Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 59, pp. 19–28.##[2] Leandro Fleck Fadel Miguel, L. F. F., Rafael Holdorf Lopez, R. H., Miguel, L. F. F. (2013). “Multimodal size, shape, and topology optimisation of truss structures using the Firefly algorithm.” Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 56, pp. 23–37.##[3] MinYuan Cheng, M. Y., Prayogo, D. YuWei W., Lukito, M. M., (2016). “A Hybrid Harmony Search algorithm for discrete sizing optimization of truss structure.” Automation in Construction, Vol. 69, pp. 21–33.##[4] Lee, K. S., Geem, Z. W., Lee, S. H., Bae, K. W., (2005). “The harmony search heuristic algorithm for discrete structural optimization.” Engineering Optimization, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 663–684.##[5] Ghoddosian, A., Sheikhi, M., (2013). “Metaheuristic optimization methods in engineering.” Semnan University Press.##[6] Kaveh, A., Mahdavi, V. R., (2015). “A hybrid CBO–PSO algorithm for optimal design of truss structures with dynamic constraints.” Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 34, pp. 260–273.##[7] Rajeev, S., Krishnamoorthy, C. S. (1992). “Discrete optimization of structures using genetic algorithms.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 118, Issue 5, pp. 12331250.##[8] Bennage, W. A. Dhingra, A. K., (1995). “Single and multiobjective structural optimization in discrete continuous variables using simulated annealing.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 38, Issue 16, pp. 27532773.##[9] Camp, C. V., Bichon, B. J., (2004). “Design of space trusses using ant colony optimization.” Engineering Optimization, Vol. 130, Issue 5, pp. 741751.##[10] Li, L. J., Huang, Z. B., Liu, F., (2009). “A heuristic particle swarm optimization method for truss structures with discrete variables.” Computer Structures., Vol. 87, Issue 7, pp. 435443.##[11] Eskandar, H., Sadollah, A., Bahreininejad, A., Hamdi, M., (2012). “Water cycle algorithm – A novel metaheuristic optimization method for solving constrained engineering optimization problems.” Computers Structures, Vol. 110, pp. 151–166.##[12] Sadollah, A., Bahreininejad, A., Eskandar, H., Hamdi, M., (2012). “Mine blast algorithm for optimization of truss structures with discrete variables.” Computers Structures, Vol. 102, pp. 49–63.##[13] Sheikhi, M., Delavar, M., Arjmand, M., (2016). “Time evolutionary optimization: A new metaheuristic optimization algorithm.” Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Development, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.##[14] Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., (2009). “Particle swarm optimizer, ant colony strategy and harmony search scheme hybridized for optimization of truss structures.” Computer Structures, Vol. 87, pp. 267283.##[15] Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., (2012). “A hybrid CSS and PSO algorithm for optimal design of structures.” Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 42, Issue 6, pp.783797.##[16] Sheikhi, M., Ghoddosian, A., (2013). “A hybrid imperialist competitive ant colony algorithm for optimum geometry design of frame structures, Structural Engineering and Mechanics.” Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 403416.##[17] Sadollah, A., Eskandar, H., Bahreininejad, A., Kim, J. H., (2015). “Water cycle, mine blast and improved mine blast algorithms for discrete sizing optimization of truss structures.” Computers Structures, Vol. 149, pp. 1–16.##[18] Shojaee, S., Arjomand, M., Khatibinia, M., (2013). “A hybrid algorithm for sizing and layout optimization of truss structures combining discrete PSO and convex approximation,” International Journal ofOptimization in Civil Engineering, Vol 3, Issue 1, pp. 5783.##[19] Kaveh, A., Mahdavi, V. R., (2015). “A hybrid CBO–PSO algorithm for optimal design of truss structures with dynamic constraints.” Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 34, pp. 260–273.##[20] Lotfi, H., Ghoddosian, A., (2015). “Size and Shape Optimization of TwoDimensional Trusses Using Hybrid Big BangBig Crunch Algorithm.” International journal of mechatronics, electrical and computer technology, Vol. 5, Issue 14, PP. 19871998.##[21] Kaveh, A., Farhoudi, N., (2013). “A new optimization method: Dolphin echolocation.” Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 59, pp. 53–70.##[22] Kaveh, A., Hosseini, P., (2014). “A simplified dolphin echolocation optimization method for optimum design of trusses.” International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 381397.##[23] Kaveh, A., IlchiGhazaan, M., (2014). “Enhanced colliding bodies optimization for design problems with continuous and discrete.”Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 77, pp. 66–75.##[24] Socha, K., Blum, Ch., (2007). “An ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous optimization: application to feedforward neural network training.” Neural Computing and Applications, Vol. 16, pp. 235247.##[25] Coelllo C. A. C., (2002). “Theoretical and numerical constrainthandling techniques used with evolutionary algorithms: a survey of the state of the art.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol.191, pp. 1245–1287.##[26] Wu, S. J, Chow, P. T. (1995). “Steadystate genetic algorithms for discrete optimization of trusses.” Computer Structure, Vol. 56, pp. 979–91.##[27] Azad, S. K., Hasançebi, O., (2014). “An elitist selfadaptive stepsize search for structural design optimization.” Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 19, pp. 226235.##[28] Azad, S. K., Hasançebi, O., (2015). “Discrete sizing optimization of steel trusses under multiple displacement constraints and load cases using guided stochastic search technique.” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 52, Issue 2, pp. 383404.##[29] Pham, A. H., (2016). “Discrete optimal sizing of truss using adaptive directional differential evolution.” Advances in Computational Design, Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp. 275296.##[30] Hasancebi, O., Carbas, S., Dogan, E., Erdal F., Saka M. P. (2009). “Performance evaluation of metaheuristic search techniques in the optimum design of real size pin jointed structures.” Computer Structures, Vol. 87, Issue 5, pp.284–302.##[31] Sonmez, M., (2011). “Discrete optimum design of truss structures using artificial bee colony algorithm.” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 43, pp. 85–97.##]
An Artificial Neural Network Model for Estimating the Shear Contribution of RC Beams Strengthened by Externally Bonded FRP
2
2
This paper provides an artificial neural network model for predicting the shear contribution of FRP in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with externally bonded FRP. Although there are some models and equations for estimating the contribution of FRP, these models, in some cases, have a significant error in the calculation of FRP contribution. One of the reasons for these errors is neglecting the effect of shear span (a) to the effective depth of beam (d) ratio in FRP performance. In this model, mechanical and dimensional properties of RC beams strengthened and strengthening materials, and also the shear span to the effective depth of beam ratio (a/d) are taken as input parameters, and the shear contribution of FRP is the target of the network. After a comprehensive review in existing literature, 96 strengthened RC beams which all of them have FRP rupture failure mode were selected which 92 of them were used for training, validation and testing the network and four of them were used for controlling the generalization of the network. Finally, the outputs of the model have compared with ACI 440.2R, fib 14 and CIDAR guidelines, and the result indicated that the ANN model is more accurate than the existing guideline equations based on experimental result.
1

88
103


Ehsan
Moradi
M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
ehsanmoradi68@yahoo.com


Hosein
Naderpour
Associate Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
naderpour78@gmail.com


Ali
Kheyroddin
Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
kheyroddin@semnan.ac.ir
RC Beams
Shear
FRP Bond
ANN
[[1] Täljsten, B., Strengthening concrete beams for shear with CFRP sheets, Construction and Building Materials, 2003, 17, 15–26.##[2] Triantafillou, T. C., COMPOSITES: A NEW POSSIBILITY FOR THE SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE, MASONRY AND WOOD, Composites Science and Technology 1998, 58, 12851295.##[3] Li, A., Diagana, C., Delmas. Y., CRFP contribution to shear capacity of strengthened RC beams, Engineering Structures 2001, 23, 1212–1220.##[4] Chen, J. F., Teng, J. G., Shear Capacity of FiberReinforced PolymerStrengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams: Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rupture, ASCE Structural Engineering. 2003, 129, 615625.##[5] Berset, J. D., Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams for Shear Using FRP Composites, M.Sc. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Jan. 1992.##[6] Uji, K., Improving shear capacity of existing reinforced concrete members by applying carbon fiber sheets. Trans. Japan Concrete Institute, 1992, 14, 253266.##[7] Vielhaber, J. and Limberger, E., Upgrading of Concrete Beams with a Local Lack of Shear Reinforcement, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unpublished Report, Berlin, Germany, 1995.##[8] Chajes, M. J., Januska, T. F., Mertz, D. R., Thomson, T. A. and Finch, W. W., Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using externally applied composite fab rics. ACI Structural Journal, 1995, 92, 295303.##[9] Sato, Y., Ueda, T., Kakuta, Y. and Tanaka, T., Shear reinforcing effect of carbon fiber sheet attached to side of reinforced concrete beams. In Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures, ed. M. M. ElBadry, 1996, 621627.##[10] Gamino, A. L., Sousa, J. L. A. O., Manzoli, O. L., Bittencourt, T. N., Estruturas de Concreto Reforçadas com PRFC, Part II: Análise dos Modelos de Cisalhamento, Ibracon Structures and Materials Journal, 2010, 3, 2449.##[11] Teng, J. G., Chen, G. M., Chen, J. F., Rosenboom, O. A., Lam, L., Behavior of RC Beams Shear Strengthened with Bonded or Unbonded FRP Wraps, Compos. Constr., 2009, 13, 394404.##[12] Bousselham, A., Chaallal, O., Effect of transverse steel and shear span on the performance of RC beams strengthened in shear with CFRP, Composites: Part B 2006, 37, 37–46.##[13] Naderpour, H., Kheyroddin, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Prediction of FRPconfined compressive strength of concrete using artificial neural networks, Composite Structures, 2010, 92 (12), 28172829.##[14] ACI Committee 440 Report, Guide for the design and strengthening of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures. American Concrete Institute Committee; October 2001.##[15] Fib. Bulletin 14, externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures. Technical report. Task Group 9.3 FRP (fibre reinforced polymer) reinforcement for concrete structures; 2001.##[16] CIDAR, Design guideline for RC structures retrofitted with FRP and metal plates: beams and slabs. Draft 3 – submitted to Standards Australia, The University of Adelaide; 2006.##[17] JSCE, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UPGRADING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES WITH USE OF CONTINUOUS FIBER SHEETS, Japan strengthening with FRP guideline.##[18] Triantafillou, TC., Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using##[19] Epoxybonded FRP composites, ACI Struct. J 1998, 95, 107–15.##[20] Chaallal, O., Nollet, M.J., and Perraton, D. 1998. “Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded fibrereinforcedplastic plates: Design guidelines for shear and flexure.” Can. J. Civ. Eng., 25, 692–708.##[21] Christopher, K. Y., Leung, M., Mandy, Y. M., Herman, C. Y., Empirical Approach for Determining Ultimate FRP Strain in FRPStrengthened Concrete Beams, composites for construction, 2006, 10, 125138.##]
Leak Detection in Water Collection and Transmission Networks Using the Minimum Nodal Pressure Measurement
2
2
Leak has always been one of the problems in water distribution networks, whose preventing not only results in the saving of water sources but also has profound effects on the maintenance cost of networks. In the present paper, a new method is applied for leak detection in water collection and transmission network. In this method, detection of leak location is performed by pressure difference analysis at junctions and by the help of the relative index of the leak. The pressure measurements should be performed at least at two nodes for two cases of with and without the presence of leak. The minimum number of pressure measurements to form a relative leak index is two. However, in this case, two nodal pressure measurements are too few, and the number of pressure measurement should be increased. Therefore the next option for the number of measurements is three. The investigated network in this research includes 7 wells with an approximate length of 7800 m located in the northwestern city of Mashhad. A real leak with a rate of 7.57 l/s is created at one of the network nodes whose amount is measurable by a volume counter. The real leak is a hypothetical leak which is known in advance, and its magnitude is not necessarily a round number in term of a liter per second. Finally, this leak is identified by the proposed method via 3 nodal pressure measurements.
1

104
115


Hamid Reza
Asgari
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
he_asgari@yahoo.com


Mahmoud F
Maghrebi
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P. O. Box 917551111, Mashhad, Iran.
Iran
magrebi@yahoo.com
Leak Detection
Nodal Pressure
Water Conveyance System
Head Loss
Leak Index
[[1] Todini, E., 2003. A more realistic approach to the extended period simulation of water distribution networks. Advances in water supply management, 173184.##[2] Todini, E., and Pilati, S., 1998. A gradient algorithm for the analysis of pipe network. Computer Applications in Water Supply, 1, 120.##[3] Covas, D., and Ramos, H., 2010. Case studies leak detection and location in water pipe systems by inverse transient analysis. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 136(2), 248257.##[4] Cheng, W. and He, D., 2011. Calibration of nodal demand in water distribution system. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 137, (1), 3140.##[5] Wu, Z. Y. and Sage, P. 2006. “Water loss detection via genetic algorithm optimization based model calibration”. ASCE 8th Annual Int. Symp. On Water Distribution Systems Analysis, ASCE, Reston, Va.##[6] Giustolisi, O., Savic, D., Kapelan, Z., 2008. PressureDriven demand and leakage simulation for water distribution networks. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 118(7), 626635.##[7] Berardi, L., Laucelli, D., Ugarelli, R. and Giustolisi, O., 2015, Leakage Management: planning remote real controlled pressure reduction in oppegard municipality. Procedia Engineering, 119(2015), 7281##[8] Asgari, H., Maghrebi, M., 2016. Application of Nodal Pressure Measurements in Leak Detection. Flow measurement and instrumentation, Elsevier, 50, 128134.##]
Comparative Study on Water Permeability of Concrete Using Cylindrical Chamber Method and British Standard and Its Relation with Compressive Strength
2
2
Since the penetration of fluids (water, oil and chemicals) into concrete, plays a major role in the durability of concrete, this paper describes the effect of compressive strength of concrete on its permeability. Having revised the existing methods developed so far, the results of investigations into the permeability of different mixtures of concrete are presented. The results of the new method (cylindrical chamber method) used for the estimation of the permeability of 5 different strength grades concrete samples after different curing periods were compared with the comparative results obtained using British standard method (BS EN 123908:2009). These experiments tend to indicate a very good correlation between the two sets of results. Based on the test results, higher water/cement ratio and shorter curing period result in decreased compressive strength and increased permeability. The correlations between compressive strength and permeability parameters (penetration depth, average penetration flow velocity, permeability coefficient and penetration volume) are also investigated using a regression approach. It is concluded that power and secondorder polynomial approximations can predict these correlations with a desirable accuracy.
1

116
131


Mahmood
Naderi
Civil Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
naderim@ikiu.ac.ir


Alireza
Kaboudan
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
alireza.kaboudan@yahoo.com


Amin
Akhavan Sadighi
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
amin.akhavansedighi@yahoo.com
Concrete
Durability
Compressive Strength
Permeability
Different Mixtures
Cylindrical Chamber Method
British Standard
Regression Approach
[[1] Mindess, S., Young, J. F., Darwin, D. (2003). “Concrete.”, Prentice Hall, INC., USA.##[2] Basheer, P. A. M. (1993). “A brief review of methods for measuring the permeation properties of concrete in situ.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil EngineersStructures and Buildings, Vol. 99, Issue 1, pp. 74–83.##[3] McCurrich, L. H. (1987). “Permeability testing of site concrete: a review of methods and experience.” Concrete Society Technical Report, no. 31.##[4] Ahmad, S., Azad, A.K., Loughlin, K.F. (2012). “Effect of the key mixture parameters on tortuosity and permeability of concrete.” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp.86–94.##[5] Lun, H, Lackner, R. (2013). “Permeability of concrete under thermal and compressive stress influence: an experimental study.” MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 6, p. 03007.##[6] Yuan, Y., Chi, Y. (2014). “Water permeability of concrete under uniaxial tension.” Structural Concrete, Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 191–201.##[7] Yang, K., Basheer, P.A.M., Magee, B., Bai, Y., Long, A.E. (2015). “Repeatability and reliability of new air and water permeability tests for assessing the durability of highperformance concretes.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 27, Issue 12, p. 04015057.##[8] Li, X., Xu, Q., Chen, S. (2016). “An experimental and numerical study on water permeability of concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 105, pp. 503–510.##[9] Amriou, A., Bencheikh, M. (2017). “New experimental method for evaluating the water permeability of concrete by a lateral flow procedure on a hollow cylindrical test piece.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol 151, pp. 642–649.##[10] Soongwang, P., Tia, M., Blomquist, D., Meletiou, C., Sessions, L. (1998), “Efficient test setup for determining the water permeability of concrete.” Transportation Research Record, no. 1204, pp. 77–82.##[11] Bamforth, P. B. (1991). “The water permeability of concrete and its relationship with strength.” Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 43, Issue 157, pp. 233–241.##[12] Armaghani, J. M., Larsen, T. J., Romano, D. C. (1992). “Aspects of concrete strength and durability.” Transportation Research Record, no. 1335, pp. 63–69.##[13] Khatri, R. P., Sirivivatnanon, V. (1997). “Methods for the determination of water permeability of concrete,” Materials Journal, Vol. 94, Issue 3, pp. 257–261.##[14] Kumar, R., Bhattacharjee, B. (2002). “Correlation between initial surface absorption rate of water and insitu strength of concrete.” Indian concrete journal, Vol. 76, Issue 4, pp. 231–235.##[15] AlAmoudi, O. S. B., AlKutti, W. A., Ahmad, S., Maslehuddin, M. (2009). “Correlation between compressive strength and certain durability indices of plain and blended cement concretes.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 31, Issue 9, pp. 672–676.##[16] Kondraivendhan, B., Divsholi, B. S., Teng, S. (2013). “Estimation of strength, permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of pozzolana blended concrete through pore size distribution.” Journal of advanced concrete technology, Vol. 11, Issue 9, pp. 230–237.##[17] Andrzej, M., Marta, M. (2016). “GWT–new testing system for “insitu” measurements of concrete water permeability.” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 153, pp. 483489.##[18] Cui, X., Zhang, J., Huang, D., Gong, X., Liu, Z., Hou, F., Cui, S. (2016). “Measurement of permeability and the correlation between permeability and strength of pervious concrete.” DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research, Honanulu, Hawaii, USA.##[19] Ahmad, S.I., Hossain, M.A. (2017). “Water permeability characteristics of normal strength concrete made from crushed clay bricks as coarse aggregate.” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2017, pp. 1–9.##[20] Naderi, M. (2010). Registration of Patent in Companies and industrial property Office, “Determination of concrete, stone, mortar, brick and other construction materials permeability with cylindrical chamber method.” Reg. No. 67726, Iran.##[21] BS EN 123908, (2009). “Testing hardened concrete part 8: depth of penetration of water under pressure.” British Standards Institution, London.##[22] Darcy, H. (1856). “Les Fontaines Publiques de la Vile de Dijon.” Victor Dalmond. Paris.##]
Modeling of Resilient Modulus of Asphalt Concrete Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Using FeedForward and Generalized Regression Neural Networks
2
2
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is one of the waste materials that highway agencies promote to use in new construction or rehabilitation of highways pavement. Since the use of RAP can affect the resilient modulus and other structural properties of flexible pavement layers, this paper aims to employ two different artificial neural network (ANN) models for modeling and evaluating the effects of different percentages of RAP on resilient modulus of hotmix asphalt (HMA). In this research, 216 resilient modulus tests were conducted for establishing the experimental dataset. Input variables for predicting resilient modulus were temperature, penetration grade of asphalt binder, loading frequency, change of asphalt binder content compared to optimum asphalt binder content and percentage of RAP. Results of modeling using feedforward neural network (FFNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model were compared with the measured resilient modulus using two statistical indicators. Results showed that for FFNN model, the coefficient of determination between observed and predicted values of resilient modulus for training and testing sets were 0.993 and 0.981, respectively. These two values were 0.999 and 0.967 in case of GRNN. So, according to comparison of R2 for testing set, the accuracy of FFNN method was superior to GRNN method. Tests results and artificial neural network analysis showed that the temperature was the most effective parameter on the resilient modulus of HMA containing RAP materials. In addition by increasing RAP content, the resilient modulus of HMA increased.
1

132
147


Ahmad
Mansourian
Bitumen and Asphalt Department, Road, Building and Urban development research center, Tehran, Iran
Iran
a.mansourian@bhrc.ac.ir


Ali
Ghanizadeh
Department of Civil Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran
Iran
ghanizadeh@sirjantech.ac.ir


Babak
Golchin
Department of Civil Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
Iran
bgolchin@iauahar.ac.ir
Asphalt Pavement
Reclaimed Asphalt
Resilient modulus
Neural Networks
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