2014
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Seismic Hazard Analysis and Obtaining Uniform Hazard Spectra for Esfahan Region, Iran
2
2
The present study was conducted to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA) over bedrock in probabilistic analysis methods for the seismic hazard and uniform hazard spectra at different hazard levels for Esfahan city. A series of statistics containing historical and instrumental seismic data covering from the 8th century A.D. to the now up to a radius of 200 km was employed and seismic sources were modeled up to a radius of 200 km from Esfahan city. For this purpose the method proposed by Kijko (2000) was employed considering uncertainty in magnitude and incomplete earthquake catalogue. Seismic hazard analysis is then carried out for Esfahan city by using SEISRlSK III (Bender and Perkins, 1987) program for 11×13 grid points. Four different attenuation relationships of PGA and SA with logic tree were used to determine the PGA on bedrock. The PGA can be determined for 143 points and the hazard spectra can be specified for 20 points of the city. Covering %2 and %10 probability of exceedance in one life cycle of 50 years are presented. Finally, the uniform hazard spectra was also presented with %10 and %2 of probability of exceedance in one life cycles of 50 years are presented along with New Mark and Hall Spectra.
1

1
18


Seyed Ali
Razavian Amrei
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ali_razavian@yahoo.com


Gholamreza
Ghodrati Amiri
Professor, Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir


Ehsan
Khodadadi
M. Sc, Department of civil, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ehsan0khodadadi@yahoo.com
Uniform hazard spectra
Seismic hazard analysis
Seismicity parameters
PGA
Esfahan
Iran
[[1] BHRC, (2005). “Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Building, Standard No. 2800, Third Revision”. Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran, Iran.##[2] Berberian, M. (1973). “Preliminary map of epicenters and focal depth”. Geological Survey of Iran.##[3] Nougol Sadat, M.A.A. (1993). “Seismotectonic Map of Iran, Scale 1:1,000,000”. Published by G.S.I.##[4] Nowroozi, A. (1985). “Empirical relations between magnitude and fault parameters for earthquakes in Iran”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 75, pp. 13271338.##[5] IIEES, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, http://www.iiees.ac.ir.##[6] Berberian, M. (1976). “Contribution to the seismotectonic of Iran, Part II, Geological Survey of Iran”. report No. 39.##[7] Ambraseys, N.N., Melville C.P. (1982). “A History of Persian Earthquakes”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Britain.##[8] Kijko, A. (1984). “Is It Necessary to Contrast Empirical Distribution of Maximum Earthquake Magnitude”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 74, pp. 339347.##[9] Moinfar, A.A., Mahdavian, A., Maleki, E. (1994). “A Catalogue of Basic Information of Iran”.##[10] Gardner, J.K. and Knopoff, L. (1974). “Is the sequence of earthquake in southern California, with aftershocks removed, Poissonian? ”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 64(5), pp. 13631367.##[11] IRCOLD, (1994). “Relationship between fault length and maximum expected magnitude”. Iranian Committee of Large Dams, Internal Report, Iran.##[12] Gutenberg, B., and Richter, C.F. (1954). “Seismicity of the earth and associated phenomena”. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, U.S.A.##[13] Tavakoli, B. (1996). “Major Seismotectonic Provinces of Iran”. International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Internal Document, Tehran, Iran.##[14] Kijko, A. (2000). “Statistical estimation of maximum regional earthquake magnitude Mama. In: Workshop of Seismicity Modeling in Seismic Hazard Mapping”. Police, Slovenia, Geological Survey, pp. 110.##[15] Bender, B. and Perkins, D.M. (1987). “SEISRISKIII: A computer program for seismic hazard estimation”. US Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 1772.##[16] Douglas, J.A. (2001). “Comprehensive worldwide summary of strongmotion attenuation relationships for Peak Ground Acceleration and Spectral ordinates (1969 to 2000) ”. ESEE Report, No. 011, Civil Department, Imperial College of Science, Technology and medicine, London.##[17] Ghodrati Amiri, G, Mahdavian, A., Manouchehri Dana, F. (2007). “Attenuation relationships for Iran”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 469492.##[18] Zare, M., GhaforyAshtiany, M., and Bard, P.Y. (1999). “Attenuation law for the strongmotions in Iran”. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Tehran, Vol. 1, pp. 345–354.##[19] Ambraseys, N.N., Simpson, K.A. and Bommer, J.J. (1996). “Prediction of horizontal response spectra in Europe”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 25, pp. 371400.##[20] Campbell, K.W. (1997). “Empirical nearsource attenuation relationships for horizontal and vertical components of peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and pseudoabsolute acceleration response spectra”. Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 68(1), pp. 154–179.##[21] Thierry Berge, C., Cotton, F., Scotti, O., Arme, D., Pommera, G., and Fukushima, Y. (2003). “New empirical response spectral attenuation laws for moderate European earthquakes”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 193222.##[22] Ghodrati Amiri, G., Khorasani, M., Mirza hessabi, R., Razavian Amrei, S.A. (2010). “Ground motion prediction equation and arias intensity for Iran”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 469492.##[23] Ghasemi, H., Zare, M., Fukushima, Y., and Koketsu, K. (2008). “An empirical spectral ground motion model for Iran”. Journal of Seismology, Vol. 13(4), pp. 499–515.##[24] Coppersmith, K.J. and Youngs, R.R. (1986) “Capturing uncertainty in probabilistic seismic hazard assessments with interpolate tectonic environments”. Proceedings 3rd U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Charleston, South Carolina, Vol. 1, pp. 301312.##[25] Kulkarni, R.B., Youngs, R.R., Copersmith, K.J. (1984). “Assessment of confidence intervals for results of seismic hazard analysis”. Proceeding 8th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, Vol. 1, pp. 263270.##[26] Power, M.S., Coppersmith, K.J., Youngs, R.R., Schwarttz, D.P., Swan, R.H. (1981). “Seismic Exposure Analysis for the WNP2 and WNP1/4 Site: Appendix 205K to Amendment No. 18 Final Safety Analysis Report for WNP2”. WoodwardClyde Consultants, San Francisco, U.S.A.##[27] IIEES, (2002). “Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings in Iran”. International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran.##[28] Newmark, N.M., and Hall, W.J. (1982). “Earthquake spectra and design”. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Monograph Series, Vol. 3.##]
Response of Buildings with Inclined FirstStory Columns to NearFault Ground Motion
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2
In this paper a simple model of a three story building with inclined firststory columns has presented. The stories are supposed to be rigid and are connected to axially rigid mass less columns by elastoplastic rotational springs and linear rotational dampers. The considered model is subjected to horizontal component of fault normal pulse with different magnitudes and the governed nonlinear differential equations of motion have been solved by the forth order RungeKutta method. Results indicate that the inclination of the firststory columns stiffens the system. However, the change of the frequency of the first mode is small. The deformation of the first story with inclined columns is such that it forces the building in a pendulumlike motion. So it would be possible to reduce the relative building response. Results indicate that an optimum value of inclination angle of the firststory columns is . Under this condition the firststory drift decreases while upperstory drift increases, respect to the common building with . For larger inclination angles the gravity effect leads to increase the firststory drift as well. This solution would be useful in earthquake resistant design of buildings with architectural limitations at the first story.
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34


Fouzieh
Rouzmehr
MS Student, Dept. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
fouziehrouzmehr@yahoo.com


Reza
Saleh Jalali
Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
Nearfault earthquake
Forward directivity pulse
Inclined firststory column
Nonlinear response
[[1] Mavroeidis, G.P., Dong, G., and Papageorgiou, A. S. (2004). "Nearfault ground motions, and the response of elastic and inelastic singledegreeoffreedom (SDOF) systems". Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 33(9): 10231049.##[2] Trifunac, M.D. (1971). "Zero Baseline Correction of StrongMotion Accelerograms". Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer., 61(5), 12011211.##[3] Trifunac, M.D. (1974). "A ThreeDimensional Dislocation Model for the San Fernando, California, Earthquake of February 9, 1971". Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer., 64(1): 149172.##[4] Bogdanoff, J.L, Goldberg, J.E, and Schiff, A.J. (1965). "The effect of ground transmission time on the response of long structures". Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 55, 627640.##[5] Zerva, A. (2009). "Spatial variation of seismic ground motions". CRC Press (Taylor and Francis), London.##[6] Hyun, C. H., Yun, C. B., and Lee, D. G. (1992). " Nonstationary response analysis of suspension bridges for multiple support excitations". Prob. Eng. Mech. 7(1), 2735.##[7] Kashefi, I., and Trifunac, M.D. (1986). "Investigation of earthquake response of simple bridge structures". Dept. of Civil Eng., Report No. CE 8602, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.##[8] Perotti, F. (1990). "Structural response to nonstationary multiple support random excitation". Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 19, 513527.##[9] Todorovska, M. I., and Lee, V. W. (1989). "Seismic waves in buildings with shear walls or central core". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 115(12), 26692686.##[10] Todorovska, M. I., and Trifunac, M.D. (1989). "Antiplane earthquake waves in long structures". J. eng. mech. div. ASCE, 115(12), 26872708.##[11] Todorovska, M. I., and Trifunac, M.D. (1990a). "A note on the propagation of earthquake waves in buildings with soft first floor". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 116(4), 892900.##[12] Todorovska, M. I., and Trifunac, M.D. (1990b). "A note on excitation of long structures by ground waves". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 116(4), 952964.## [13] Kojić, S., and Trifunac, M.D. (1988). "Earthquake response of arch dams to nonuniform canyon motion". Dept. of Civil Eng., Report No. CE 8803, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.##[14] Kojić, S., and Trifunac, M.D. (1991a). "Earthquake stresses in arch dams: I theory and antiplane excitation". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 117(3), 532552.##[15] Kojić, S. and Trifunac, M.D. (1991b). "Earthquake stresses in arch dams: II excitation by SV, P and Rayleigh waves". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 117(3), 553574.##[16] Okubo, T., Arakawa, T., and Kawashima, T. (1983). "Preliminary analysis of finite ground strains induced during earthquake and effect of spatial ground motions on structural response". Int. Symp. on Lifeline Earthquake Eng., 4th U.S. National Conf. on Pressure Vessels and Piping Technology, ASME, Portland, Oregon.##[17] Zembaty, Z., and Krenk, S. (1993). "Spatial seismic excitations and reponse spectra". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 119, 24492459.##[18] Zembaty, Z., and Krenk, S. (1994). "Reponse spectra of spatial seismic ground motion". 10th European Conf. Earthquake Eng. Vol. 2, Vienna, Austria, 12711275.##[19] Jalali, R.S., Nouripour Azgomi, M., and Trifunac, M.D (2013). "Inplane response of twostory structures to nearfault ground motion". Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 55, 263274.##[20] Todorovska, M. I. (1999). "Base isolation by a soft first story with inclined columns". J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 125(4), 448457.##[21] Trifunac, M.D., Udwadia, F.E. (1974). "Parkfield, California, earthquake of June 27, 1966: A threedimensional moving dislocation". Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer., 64(3): 511533.##[22] Haskell, N.A. (1969). "Elastic displacements in the near field of a propagating fault". Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., 59(2), 956980.##[23] Trifunac, M.D. (1993a). "Long Period Fourier Amplitude Spectra of Strong Motion Acceleration". Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Eng., 12(6), 363382.##[24] Trifunac, M.D. (1993b). "Broad band extension of Fourier amplitude spectra of strong motion acceleration". Dept. of Civil Eng. Report CE 9301, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.##[25] Trifunac, M.D. (1998). "Stresses and intermediate frequencies of strong motion acceleration". Geofizika, 14, 127.##[26] Trifunac, M.D., Todorovska, M.I., Lee, V.W. (1998). "The Rinaldi strong motion accelerogram of the Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January, 1994". Earthquake Spectra, 14(1): 225239.##[27] Trifunac, M. D. (1982). "A note on rotational components of earthquake motions on ground surface for incident body waves". Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 1(1), 1119.##]
Ultimate Tendon Stress in CFRP Strengthened Unbounded HSC PostTensioned Continuous IBeams
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2
The use of unbounded tendons is common in prestressed concrete structures and evaluation of the stress increase in unbonded tendons at ultimate flexural strength of such structure has posed a great challenge over the years. Based on the bending experiment for twospan continuous posttension beams with unbounded tendons and externally applied CFRP sheets, the monitoring of the stress increment of unbounded tendons is made in the loading process. For these aims, in this paper there are presented results of two continuous unbonded posttensioned Ibeams were cast with high strength concrete (HSC) and monitored by electrical strain gauges. The beams are made of which are compared with the theory proposed by different codes. The results indicate that the ACI 3182011 provides better estimates than AASHTO2010 model whereas this model provides better estimates than BS 811097. Comparison of experimental ultimate tendon stress increase of strengthened and nonstrengthened beams casted with HSC indicates that increase in tendon stress at an ultimate state in strengthened unbounded posttensioned beam is lower than nonstrengthened unbounded posttension beam casted with HSC.
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35
45


Ali Akbar
Maghsoudi
Department of civil engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
maghsoudi.a.a@uk.ac.ir


Yousef
Askari Dolatabad
Department of civil engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
y.askari@eng.uk.ac.ir
Strengthened
CFRP sheet
Unbounded tendons
Stress increases
High strength concrete
Continuous beams
[[1] Warwaruk, J., Sozen, M.A., Siess, C.P. (1962), “Strength and Behavior in Flexure of Prestressed Concrete Beams”, Engineering Experimental Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, Bullten No. 464.##[2] Cooke, N.I., Park, R., Yong, P. (1981), ‘‘Flexural Strength of Prestressed Concrete Member with Unbounded Tendons", PCI Journal, Vol. 26, 5280.##[3] Elzanaty, A., Nilson, A.H. (1982), ‘‘Flexural Behavior of Unbonded PostTensioned Partially Prestressed Concrete Beams”, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Structural Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca USA.##[4] Du, G., Tao, X. (1985), ‘‘Ultimate Stress in Unbounded Tendons of Partially Prestressed Concrete Beams”, PCI Journal, Vol. 30, 7291.##[5] Chouinard, K.L. (1989), ‘‘Tendon Stress at Ultimate in Partially Prestress Concrete Beams”, Master’s thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario.##[6] Harajli, M. H., Kanj, M. (1991), ‘‘Ultimate Flexural Strength of Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbounded Tendons”, ACI Structural Journal, Proceedings Vol. 88, 663671.##[7] Ozkul, O., Nassif, H., Tanchan, P. and Harajli, M. (2008), “Rational approach for predicting stress in beams with unbonded tendons”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 105, 338–347.##[8] Naaman, A. E. , Alkhairi, F. M. (1991), “Stress at Ultimate in Unbounded PostTensioned Tendons: Part 2—Proposed Methodology”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 88, 683692.##[9] Ament, J. M., Chakrabarti, P. R. and Putcha, C. S. (1991), “Comparative Statistical Study for the Ultimate Stress in Unbonded Posttensioning”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 94, 171–180.##[10] Harajli, M. H. (2006), “On the Stress in Unbonded Tendons at Ultimate: Critical Assessment and Proposed Changes”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 103, 803–812.##[11] Manisekar, R. and Senthil, R. (2006), “Stress at Ultimate in Unbonded Post Tensioning Tendons for Simply Supported Beams: A StateoftheArt Review”, Adv. Struct. Eng., Vol. 9, 321–335.##[12] Dall’Asta, A., Ragni, L. and Zona, A. (2007), “Simpliﬁed Method for Failure Analysis of Concrete Beams Prestressed with External Tendons”, J. Struct. Eng., Vol. 133, 121–131.##[13] He, Z., Liu, Z. (2010), “Stresses in External and Internal Unbonded Tendons: Unified Methodology and Design Equations”, ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 136, 1055–1065.##[14] ACI 31811 (2011), ‘‘Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary”, Michigan (USA), American Concrete Institute.##[15] BS 8110 (1997), ‘‘Structural Use of Concrete”, Part 1, British Standards Institution, London, UK.##[16] AASHTO (2010), “LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 16. Washington, D.C.##[17] Mattock, A.H., Yamazaki. J., Kattula, B.T. (1971), ‘‘Comparative Study of Prestressed Concrete Beams, with and without Bond", ACI Journal, Proceedings Vol. 68, 116125.##[18] Mojtahedi, S., Gamble, W.L. (1978), ‘‘Ultimate Steel Stresses in Unbonded Prestressed Concrete”, Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, 11591165.##[19] MacGregor, R.J.G. (1989), “Strength and ductility of externally posttensioned segmental box girders”, PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.##[20] MacGregor, R.J.G., Kreger, M.E., Breen J.E. (1989), “Strength and ductility of a threespan externally posttensioned segmental box girder bridge model”, Research report no. 3653F, Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin.##[21] Pannell, F.N. (1969), “Ultimate Moment Resistance of Unbounded Prestressed Concrete Beams”, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 21, 4354.##[22] Tam, A., Pannell, F. (1976), “The Ultimate Moment of Resistance of Unbounded Partially Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Beams”, Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 28, 203208.##]
Behavior of FRPConfined Reactive Powder Concrete Columns under Eccentric Loading
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2
Fiber reinforced Polymers (FRP) have widely used for the purposes of enhances strength and ductility of concrete columns. Proper design of such hybrid columns, however, requires a better recognition of the behavior of concrete columns confined with FRP. In this paper, the influence of FRP thickness, concrete compressive strength, and column size on the performance of eccentrically loaded reactive powder concrete (RPC) columns confined with FRP is investigated. In this regard, five different FRP thicknesses, three types of column sizes, and concrete compressive strength values ranging from 140 MPa to 180 MPa are considered. For this purpose, twodimensional nonlinear finite element analyses are carried out so as to predict the behavior of FRPconfined RPC columns. OpenSees software is employed to analyze the considered columns. To validate finite element model, the numerical predictions are compared with the experimental data. The study, from a numerical point of view, derived some important relevant conclusions regarding the behavior of RPC columns confined with FRP.
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Muhammad
Abbassi
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
Iran


Hooshang
Dabbagh
Assistant professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
Iran
h.dabbagh@uok.ac.ir
Finite element analysis
Reactive powder concrete
Column
FRP confined
Compressive Strength
Eccentrically loaded
[[1] GangaRao, H.V.S., Taly, N., Vijay, P.V. (2007). “Reinforced Concrete Design with FRP Composites”. Englewood Cliffs, CRC Press, USA.##[2] Ma, R., Xiao, Y. (1999). “Seismic Retrofit and Repair of Circular Bridge Columns with Advanced Composite Materials”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 15, pp. 747764.##[3] Pessiki, S., Harries, K.A., Kestner, J.T., Sause, R., Ricles, J.M. (2001). “Axial Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Columns Confined with FRP Jackets”. Journal of Composites for Construction ASCE, Vol. 5, pp. 237245.##[4] Karabinis, A.I., Rousakis, T.C. (2002). “Concrete Confined by FRP Material: A Plasticity Approach”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 24, pp. 923932.##[5] Matthys, S., Toutanji, H., Audenaert, K., Taerwe, L. (2005). “Axial Load Behavior of LargeScale Columns Confined with FiberReinforced Polymer Composites”. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 102, pp. 258267.##[6] Wu, Y.F., Liu, T., Oehlers, D.J. (2006). “Fundamental Principles that Govern Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Columns by Steel and FRP Jacketing”. Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 9, 50733.##[7] Wong, Y.L., Yu, T., Teng, J.G., Dong, S.L. (2008). “Behavior of FRPConfined Concrete in Annular Section Columns”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 39, 451466.##[8] Bouchelaghem, H., Bezazi, A., Scarpa F. (2011). “Compressive Behaviour of Concrete Cylindrical FRPConfined Columns Subjected to a New Sequential Loading Technique”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, pp. 19871993.##[9] ElHacha, R., Abdelrahman, K. (2013). “Slenderness Effect of Circular Concrete Specimens Confined with SFRP Sheets”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 44, pp. 152166.##[10] Morin, V., CohenTenoudji, F., Feylessoufi, A. (2002). “Evolution of the Capillary Network in a Reactive Powder Concrete during Hydration Process”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 32, pp. 19071914.##[11] Dowd, W.M., Dauriac C.E., Adeline R. (1999). “Reactive Powder Concrete for Bridge Construction”. Proceedings of the 5th ASCE Materials Engineering Congress, Cincinnati, USA.##[12] Chan, Y.W., Chu, S.H. (2004). “Effect of Silica Fume on Steel Fiber Bond Characteristics in Reactive Powder Concrete”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, pp. 11671172.##[13] Aïtcin, P.C. (2000). “Cements of Yesterday and Today Concrete of Tomorrow”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, pp. 13491359.##[14] Lee, I. (2002). “Complete StressStrain Characteristics of High Performance Concrete”. PhD thesis, New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, USA.##[15] Ho, J.C.M., Lam, J.Y.K., Kwan, A.K.H. (2010). “Effectiveness of Adding Confinement for Ductility Improvement of HighStrength Concrete Columns”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 32, pp. 714725.##[16] Abdelouahed, T. (2006). “Improved Theoretical Solution for Interfacial Stresses in Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Plate”. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 43, pp. 41544174.##[17] Parvin, A., Jamwal, A.S. (2006). “Performance of Externally FRP Reinforced Columns for Changes in Angle and Thickness of the Wrap and Concrete Strength”. Composite Structures, Vol. 73, pp. 451457.##[18] Jiang, J.F., Wu, Y.F. (2012). “Identification of Material Parameters for DruckerPrager Plasticity Model for FRP Confined Circular Concrete Columns”. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 49, pp. 445456.##[19] Li, G., Kidane, S., Pang, S.S., Helms, J.E., Stubblefield, M.A. (2003). “Investigation into FRP Repaired RC Columns”. Composite Structures, Vol. 62, pp. 8389.##[20] Elsanadedy, H.M., AlSalloum, Y.A., Alsayed, S.H., Iqbal R.A. (2012). “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Size Effects in FRPWrapped Concrete Columns”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 29, pp. 5672.##[21] Issa, C.A., Chami, P., Saad, G. (2009). “Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders with Variable Widths CFRP Wraps: Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, pp. 23062318.##[22] Yu, T., Teng, J.G., Wong, Y.L., Dong, S.L. (2010). “Finite Element Modeling of Confined ConcreteI: DruckerPrager Type Plasticity Model”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 32, pp. 665679.##[23] Hadi, M.N.S. (2003). “Behaviour of Wrapped HSC Columns under Eccentric Loads”. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 91100.##[24] Hadi, M.N.S. (2006). “Behaviour of FRP Wrapped Normal Strength Concrete Columns under Eccentric Loading”. Composite Structures, Vol. 72, pp. 503511.##[25] Hadi, M.N.S. (2009). “Behaviour of Eccentric Loading of FRP Confined Fibre Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, pp. 11021108.##[26] Abbassi, M., Dabbagh, H. (2014). “Finite Element Analysis of Reactive Powder Concrete Columns Confined with CFRP”. International Journal of Civil Engineerng. (submitted)##[27] Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H., Fenves, G.L. (2007). “OpenSees Command Language Manual”. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, USA.##[28] Yalcin, C., Saatcioglu, M. (2000). “Inelastic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns”. Computers and Structures, Vol. 77, pp. 539555.##[29] Kwak, H.G., Kim, S.P. (2002). “Nonlinear Analysis of RC Beams Based on Moment Curvature Relation”. Composite Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 615628.##[30] Assan, A.E. (2002). “Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Cylindrical Shells”. Composite Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 21772184.##[31] Coronado, C.A., Lopez, M.M. (2006). “Sensitivity Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Laminates”. Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 28, pp. 102114.##[32] AlAmery, R., AlMahaidi, R. (2006). “Numerical Analysis of Multilayered CFRP Retrofitted RC Beams with Partial Interaction”. Composite Structures, Vol. 75, pp. 479488.##[33] Malik, A.R., Foster, S.J. (2010). “Carbon FiberReinforced Polymer Confined Reactive Powder Concrete ColumnsExperimental Investigation”. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 7, pp. 263271.##[34] Almusallam, T.H. (2007). “Behavior of Normal and HighStrength Concrete Cylinders Confined with EGlass/Epoxy Composite Laminates”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 38, pp. 62939.##[35] Parvin, A., Jamwal, A.S. (2005). “Effects of Wrap Thickness and Ply Configuration on CompositeConfined Concrete Cylinders”. Composite Structures, Vol. 67, pp. 43742. ##]
An Improvement to Pedestrian’s Mobility by rehabilitating the Sidewalk with Application of AHP (Case Study)
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2
This study investigated the effects of rehabilitation of sidewalks on improvement of the pedestrians’ mobility. In order to successfully achieve this, sidewalk characteristics were determined via previous studies, expert elicitation and field studies and seven parameters which are available in Tehran’s sidewalks were chosen. These seven parameters were “Side trees of sidewalks”, “Width of sidewalks”, “Type of sidewalks”, “Side buildings of sidewalks”, “Lighting of sidewalks”, “Side facilities of sidewalks” and “Sidewalks' pavement conditions”. Next, four pedestrians sidewalk were randomly chosen. Using AHP method and Collected questionnaires the four sidewalks were prioritized. Sensitivity analysis was applied to find the effects of each of the seven parameters. Considering the results, the effective parameters of each sidewalk were respectively rehabilitated by Photoshop CS3 software and the process of prioritizing was repeated. According to the obtained results, it is not necessary to improve all parameters of a sidewalk to achieve a suitable and attractive sidewalk. An attractive sidewalk will be able to achieve only by improving some certain parameters of sidewalks. The procedure used in this study will lead to save money and time in urban designs and city developments.
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Golamali
Shafabakhsh
Associate Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
shafabakhsh@semnan.ac.ir


Mehdi
Mohammadi
Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
mmahdii@gmail.com
Movement
City
Sidewalk
AHP Method
Rehabilitation
[[1] Lund, H. (2002). “Pedestrian Environments and Sense of Community”. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21 (3), pp. 301–312.##[2] Shafabakhsh, Gh., Mirzanamadi, R., Mohammadi, M. (2013). “Micro Simulation of the Elderly Population’s Effect on Iran's Pedestrian's Walking Flow”, Journal of Promet Traffic and Transportation, 25(4), pp. 331–342.##[3] LoukaitouSideris, A., Blumenberg, E., Ehrenfeucht, R. (2004). “Sidewalk Democracy: Municipalities and the Regulation of Public Space, Regulating Place: Standards and the Shaping of Urban America”. Eran BenJoseph and Terry S. Szold. New York: Routledge.##[4] Transportation Research Board. (2000). “Highway Capacity Manual”. National Research Council, Washington.##[5] Moudon, A. V., Hess, P. M.., Snyder, M. C., Stanilow, K. (1997). “Effect of Site Design on Pedestrian Travel in MixedUse Medium Density Environments”. Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), Washington DC.##[6] Hess, P. M., Moudon, A. V., Snyder, M. C., Stanilow, K. (1999). “Site Design and Pedestrian Travel”. Transportation Research Record, 167402, pp. 9–19.##[7] World Bank. (2007). “Strategic Urban Transport Policy Directions for Bangkok, Transport Development Partnership”. United Nations Publications, Bangkok.##[8] Tanaboriboon, Y., Jing, Q. (1994). “Chinese Pedestrians and Their Walking Characteristics: Case Study in Beijing”, Transportation Research Record, 1441 16.##[9] Savolainen, P.H., Gates, T.J., Datta, T.K. (2011). “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Pedestrian Safety Program in a Major City”. In: TRB(Transportation Research Board), The 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washignton DC, USA. 2327.##[10] Wells, N.M., Yang, Y. (2008). “Neighborhood design and Walking: A QuasiExperimental Longitudinal Study”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34 (4), pp. 313319.##[11] Valipur, J. S., Ahmadzade, N. (2006). “Pedestrians' Roles on Improvement of Urban Transportation”. National Congress of Improvement of Urban Environment, Tehran, Iran, 1516 Aug.##[12] Khalili, M., Layifi Oskouyi, L., Mohammadi, M., Khaksaz, H. (2011). “Assessment of Factors Affecting the Desirability of Walking Paths, Comparative Surveying of Trabiat Walkway in Tabriz and Sepah Salar Walkway (Saf) in Tehran”. In ICCTE (International Conference of Trafic and Transportation), 10th International Conference of Trafic and Transportation; Tehran; Iran 2122 Feb.##[13] Naghavi, R., Nadernejad, M. (2012). “Technical measures of Creation Mode of Green Space in Urban Passages”. 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran 810 May.##[14] Schroeder, H.W., Cannon, W.N. (1987). “Visual Quality of Residential Streets: Both Street and Yard trees Make a Difference”. Journal of Arboriculture, 13(10), pp.236239.##[15] Sarkar, S. (2003). “Qualitative Evaluation of Comfort Needs in Urban Walkways in Major Activity Centers”. In: TRB (Transportation Research Board), The 82th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washignton DC, USA. 1216 Jan.##[16] Pamanikabud, P., Pichittanapanya, S. (2003). “Serviceability Analysis of Pedestrian Walkway at Bangkok Mass Transit Station”. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5(1), pp. 23822397.##[17] Nursyamsu, H., Choocharukul, K., Kishi, K. (2011). “Understanding Pedestrian Perceptions on Sidewalk Performance: A Comparative Study between Bangkok and Jakarta”. In: TRB (Transportation Research Board), The 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washignton DC, USA. 2327 Jan.##[18] Friman, M., Edvardsson, B., Gärling, T. (2001). “Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services”. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8(2), pp. 95114.##[19] MirandaMoreno, L. F., Fernandes, D. (2011). “Pedestrian Activity Modelling at Signalized Intersections: Land Use, Urban form, Weather and SpatioTemporal Patterns”. In: TRB (Transportation Research Board), The 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washignton DC, USA. 2327 Jan.##[20] Kim.K., Yamashita, E. (2011). “Urban Environmental Quality and Pedestrian Volumes”. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 113780, 18.##[21] Mirzanamadi, R., Afsharikia, Z. (2012). “Exploring Factors that Influence people’s Satisfaction with Sidewalk Environments Using MultiCriteria Methods (SAW, TOPSIS, VIKOR & AHP) (Case study: Tehran, Iran)”, 11th International Conference of Traffic and Transportation, Tehran, Iran, Feb.##[22] Stradling, S. G., Anable, J., Carreno, M. (2007). “Performance, Importance and User Disgruntlement: A SixStep Method for Measuring Satisfaction with Travel Modes”. Transportation Research Part: A, 41(1), pp. 98–106.##[23] MirandaMoreno, L. F., Morency, P., ElGeneidy, A. (2010). “How Does the Built Environment Influence Pedestrian Activity and Pedestrian Collisions at Intersections”. In: TRB (Transportation Research Board), The 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washignton DC, USA. 1014 Jan.##[24] Shafabakhsh, Gh., Mohammadi, M. (2013). “Simulation of pedestrian movements using social force model”. J. Model. Eng., 11, (34), 49–62.##[25] Hochberg, J. (1966). “Representative sampling and the purposes of research: Pictures of the world and the world of pictures”. In K. Hammond (Ed.), The Psychology of EgonBrunswik, New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.##[26] Arbel, A., Orger, Y.E. (1990). “An Application of AHP to Bank Strategic Planning: The Merger Andacquisitions Process”. European Journal of Operational Research, 48 (1), pp.2737.##[27] Babic, Z., Plazibat, N. (1998). “Ranking of Enterprises Based on MultiCriterion Analysis”. International journal of Production Economics, 56 (1), pp.237248.##]
Comparative Review of the Performance Based Design of Building Structures Using Static NonLinear Analysis, Part B: R/C Frames
2
2
The objective of this review to be submitted in two independent parts, for steel frames and for RC frames, is to compare their structural performance with respect to the proposed N2method, and so also of the consequent convenience of using pushover methodology for the seismic analysis of these structures. A preliminary investigation is presented on a pushover analysis used for the seismic performance of metallic braced frames equipped with diagonal Xbracing and Kbracing systems. Three steel frames are analysed corresponding to 3, 6 and 10 floor regular buildings that were modelled in the MIDAS/Civil finite element software. To obtain the pushover curve a nonlinear static methodology is used. For the RC frames three commercial programs (SAP 2000, SeismoStruck and MIDAS/Civil) are used in order to perform a parametric study based on pushover analyses. The equivalent strut method is applied to simulate the influence of the masonry infill panels; to evaluate the influence of these on the capacity curves, several strut width values are considered. The parametric study also addresses the influence of other parameters on the structural behaviour and nonlinear capacity curves of the RC frame, namely: length and position of the plastic hinges and different loading patterns (uniform, modal and triangular distributions).
1

75
92


R. C.
Barros
Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal
Portugal


M. T.
BrazCésar
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal
Portugal


Hosein
Naderpour
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
naderpour78@gmail.com


S.M.
Khatami
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
performance based design
Static nonlinear analysis
Pushover
Bracing system
Dynamic Analysis
[[1] Fajfar, P., Fischinger, M. “N2 – A Method for NonLinear Seismic Analysis of Regular Buildings”. Proceedings of the 9th World Conference in Earthquake Engineering, 1988, Vol.5, 111116, TokyoKyoto, Japan.##[2] EC 8, Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance; Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings; CEN, Brussels, 2003.##[3] Cesar, M.B., Barros, R.C., “Estudo Preliminar sobre o Desempenho Sísmico de Pórticos Metálicos Contraventados a partir de Análises Estáticas NãoLineares (Pushover)”; Proceedings of ‘Métodos Numéricos e Computacionais em Engenharia CMNE 2007 e XXVIII CILAMCE’, Congresso Ibero LatinoAmericano sobre Métodos Computacionais em Engenharia, FEUP, Porto, 1315 Junho 2007; CMNE/CILAMCE 2007, Paper 1184 – pp. 118; Edts: A. RodriguezFerran, Javier Olivier, Paulo R.M. Lyra, José L.D. Alves; APMTAC / SEMNI, 2007.##[4] Cesar, M.B., Barros, R.C., “Seismic Performance of Metallic Braced Frames by Pushover Analyses”, Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (COMPDYN 2009), M. Papadrakakis, N.D. Lagaros, M. Fragiadakis (eds.), Rhodes, Greece, 22–24 June 2009.##[5] Pereira, V.G., Barros, R.C. and Cesar, M.B., “A Parametric Study of a R/C Frame Based on Pushover Analysis”, 3rd International Conference on Integrity, Reliability & Failure (IRF 2009), J.F. Silva Gomes and S.A. Meguid (eds.), Porto, Portugal, 2024 July 2009.##[6] Pereira, V.G., Barros, R.C. and Cesar, M.B., “Pushover Analyses of a R/C Frame by distinct Software”, 12th International Conference on the Enhancement and Promotion of Computational Methods in Engineering and Science (EPMESC XII), HongKong and Macao, 30 Nov–3 Dec 2009.##[7] Elghazouli, A.Y. (editor), “Seismic Design of Buildings to Eurocode 8”, Spon Press, Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 2009.##[8] FEMA  Federal Emergency Management Agency, “NEHRP guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings”, FEMA273; “NEHRP commentary on the guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings”, FEMA274; Washington, D.C., 1997.##[9] R.F. Almeida, R.C. Barros, “A new multimode load pattern for pushover analysis: the effect of higher modes of vibration”, Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures IV, Eds.: G. Latini and C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, (2003), U.K., pp. 313.##[10] R. C. Barros, R. Almeida, “Pushover analysis of asymmetric threedimensional buildings frames”, Journal Civil Engineering & Management, Vol. XI, Number 1, pp. 312, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2005.##[11] Chopra, A.K., Goel, R.K., “A modal pushover analysis procedure to estimate seismic demands for unsymmetricplan buildings”, Earthquake Engng Struct. Dyn. 33: 903–927, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.##[12] H.N. Li, G. Li, Simplified method for pushover curves of asymmetric structure with displacement dependent passive energy dissipation devices, Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 10, Issue 5, (2007), 537649.##[13] G. Li, H.N. Li, Direct displacementbased design for buildings with passive energy dissipation devices, Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 25, Issue 3, (2008), 4957.##[14] ATC, Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings, Report ATC40, Applied Technology Council, Redwood City CA (1996).##[15] FEMA356, Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Report FEMA 356, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, (2000).##[16] P. Fajfar, A nonlinear analysis method for performancebased seismic design, Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 16, EERI, (2000), pp. 573592.##[17] R. Bento, S. Falcão, F. Rodrigues, Avaliação sísmica de estruturas de edifícios com base em análises estáticas não lineares, SISMICA 2004 – 6º Congresso Nacional de Sismologia e Engenharia Sísmica, Guimarães, Portugal, 2004.##[18] MIDASIT, “MIDAS/Civil – General purpose analysis and optimal design system for civil structures”, MIDAS Information Technology Co, Ltd., Korea, 2005.##[19] M.S. Williams, F. Albermani, Evaluation of displacementbased analysis and design methods for steel frames with passive energy dissipators, Civil Engineering Research Bulletin No. 24, University of Queensland, Australia, 2003.##[20] BrazCesar, M., Oliveira, D.V. and R. CarneiroBarros, “Numerical Validation of the Experimental Cyclic Response of RC Frames”, Chapter 12 in the book Trends in Computational Structures Technology, Edited by: B.H.V. Topping, SaxeCoburg Publications, ISBN 9781874672395, pp. 267291, Stirlingshire, Scotland, 2008.##[21] H. Krawinkler, G.D.P.K. Seneviratna, Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation, Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, (1998), pp. 452464.##[22] Park, R. and T. Paulay, Reinforced Concrete Structures. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1975.##[23] Park, R., Priestley, M.J.N., and W.D. Gill; “Ductility of squareconfined concrete columns”, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 108, No. ST 4, pp. 929950, 1982.##[24] Priestley, M.J.N., Seible, F. and G.M.S. Calvi, Seismic design and retrofit of bridges. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1996.##[25] Polyakov, S. V., Masonry in framed building: an investigation into the strength and stiffness of masonry infilling, Moscow, 1957.##[26] Stafford Smith, B. and C. Carter, “A method of analysis for infilled frames”, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 44, 1969.##[27] Riddington, J. R. and B. Stafford Smith, “Analysis of infilled frames subject to racking with design recommendations”, The Structural Engineer, Vol. 55, Nº 6, 1977.##[28] Paulay, T. and M. Priestley, Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings, John Wiley & Sons, 1992.##[29] Crisafulli F.J., Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Structures with Masonry Infills, PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 1997.##[30] Fardis, M.N. and T.B. Panagiotakos, “Seismic design and response of bare and masonryinfilled reinforced concrete buildings – Part II: Infilled structures”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. I, No 3, 475503, 1997.##[31] Eurocódigo 2: Projecto de estruturas de betão; Parte 11: Regras gerais e regras para edifícios. Comité Europeu de Normalização, Brussels, 2004.##[32] Fagus, Fagus5: Version 1.22.0 Build 275, Cubus AG, Zurïch, 20002006.##[33] Computers & Structures Inc.; “SAP 2000 v10.0.1 – Structural Analysis Program”. Berkeley, California, U.S.A., 2005.##[34] SeismoSoft SeismoStruck, “A Computer Program for Static and Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Framed Structures”. Available online at: http://www.seismosoft.com; 2006.##[35] Blandon, C.A., “Implementation of an Infill Masonry Model for Seismic Assessment of Existing Buildings”, Individual Study, European School for Advanced Studies in Reduction of Seismic Risk (ROSE School), Pavia, Italy, 2005.##]
Stabilization of Subgrade Soil for Highway by Recycled Polyester Fiber
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2
Subgrade soil stabilization is one of the primary and major processes in the construction of any highway; also environmental authorities are concerned about the growing amount of polyethylene (PET) bottles produced by household sectors. This research in order to study effect of adding recycled polyester fiber on soil engineering properties, especially shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) used clay soil with low liquid limit (CL) and atterberg limits used high liquid limit (CH). Clay soil with recycled polyester fibers are mixed with soil in three different percentages 0.1%, 0.3% & 0.5% (the portion of stabilizer matters to soil net weight). Shear strength, CBR, atterberg limits of stabilizer samples were measured by direct shear test and CBR test and atterberg limits test. Experiments results show this fact that using of recycled polyester leads to increasing shear strength and CBR and reduction, plasticity index. It is remarkable that according to economic problems, the most optimum quantity of recycled polyester fiber to reach to favorite strength is 0.5%.
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93
105


Foad
Changizi
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran


Abdolhosein
Haddad
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan, Iran
Iran
ahadad@semnan.ac.ir
Recycled polyester fiber
Soil stabilization
Shear strength
CBR
Atterberg limits
[[1] Khattab, S.A.A., AlJuari, K.A.K., AlKiki, I.M.A. (2008). “Strength, durability and hydraulic properties of clay soil stabilized with lime and industrial waste lime”. AlRafidain Engineering Journal, Vol. 16(1), pp. 102–116.##[2] Brooks, R. M. (2009). “Soil stabilization with fly ash and rice husk ash”. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Vol. 1(3), pp. 209217.##[3] Kumar, P., Kar, R., Naik, A. (2012). “Effect of random inclusion of polypropylene fibers on strength characteristics of cohesive soil”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 1525.##[4] Kumar, P., Mehndiratta, H.C., Chandranarayana, S., Singh, S.P. (2005). “Effect of randomly distributed fibres on fly ash embankments”. International Engineering Journal CV, Vol. 86, pp.113–118.##[5] Mirzababaei, M., Miraftab, M., Mohamed, M., McMahon, P. (2013). “Impact of carpet waste fibre addition on swelling properties of compacted clays”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 173182.##[6] Park, S.S. (2013). “Unconfined compressive strength and ductility of fiberreinforced cemented sand”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, pp. 1134–1138.##[7] Mohamed, A.E.M. (2013). “Improvement of swelling clay properties using hay fibers”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 38, pp. 242247.##[8] Hamidi, A., Hooresfand, M. (2013). “Effect of fiber reinforcement on triaxial shear behavior of cement treated sand”. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 36, pp. 19.##[9] Freitag, D.R. (1986). “Soil randomly reinforced with fibers”. Journal Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 112(8), pp. 823–826.##[10] Mesbah, A., Morel, J.C., Walker, P., Ghavami, Kh. (2004). “Development of a direct tensile test for compacted earth blocks reinforced with natural fibers”. Journal Material Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, pp. 9598.##[11] Jiang, H., Cai, Y., Liu, J. (2010). “Engineering properties of soils reinforced by short discrete polypropylene fiber”. Journal Material Civil Engineering, Vol. 22(12), pp. 1315.##[12] Estabragh, A.R., Bordbar, A.T., Javadi, A.A. (2013). “Mechanical behavior of a clay soil reinforced with nylon fibers”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 899908.##[13] Maliakal, T., Thiyyakkandi, S. (2013). “Influence of randomly distributed coir fibers on shear strength of clay”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 425–433.##[14] Fauzi, A., Abdul Rahman, W.M.N., Jauhari, Z. (2013). “Utilization waste material as stabilizer on kuantan clayey soil stabilization”. Journal Procedia Engineering, Vol. 53, pp. 42 – 47.##[15] Tang, Ch. Sh., Shi, B., Zhao, L.Z. (2010). “Interfacial shear strength of fiber reinforced soil”. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 28, pp. 5462.##[16] Paul Guyer, J. (2009). “Introduction to flexible pavement design”. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980.##[17] Marandi, S.M., Bagheripour, M.H., Rahgozar, R., Zare, H. (2008). “Strength and ductility of randomly distributed palm fibers reinforced siltysand soils. American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 5 (3), pp. 209220.##[18] AASHTO. (1993). “AASHTO guide for design of pavement structures”. American association of state highway and transportation officials, Washington, DC.##[19] Yoder, E.J., Witczak, M.W. (1975). “Principles of pavement design”. A Wiley – Interscience Publication.##[20] Austroads, (1987). “A guide to the visual assessment of pavement condition”. Austroads, Sydney, Australia.##]
Compressive Strength of Confined Concrete in CCFST Columns
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2
This paper presents a new model for predicting the compressive strength of steelconfined concrete on circular concrete filled steel tube (CCFST) stub columns under axial loading condition based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) by using a large wide of experimental investigations. The input parameters were selected based on past studies such as outer diameter of column, compressive strength of unconfined concrete, length of column, wall thickness and tensile yield stress of steel tube. After the learning step, the neural network can be extracted the relationships between the input variables and output parameters. The criteria for stopping the training of the networks are Regression values and Mean Square Error. After constructing networks with constant input neurons but with different number of hiddenlayer neurons, the best network was selected. The neural network results are compared with the existing models which showed the results are in good agreement with experiments.
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106
113


Ali
Kheyroddin
Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
kheyroddin@yahoo.com


Hosein
Naderpour
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
naderpour78@gmail.com


Masoud
Ahmadi
M.Sc., Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
masoud.ahmadi@abru.ac.ir
CCFST Columns
Artificial Neural Network
Confined Concrete
[[1] Kheyroddin, A., Naderpour, H., Ahmadi, M. (2013). “Performance of circular concrete filled steel tube members subjected to axial loading”. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Concrete & Development, Tehran, Iran.##[2] Ding, F.X., Yu, Z.W., Gong, Y.Z. (2011). “Elastoplastic analysis of circular concretefilled stub columns”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, pp. 156777.##[3] Hatzigeorgiou, G.D. (2008). “Numerical model for the behavior and capacity of circular CFT columns, Part II: Verification and extension”. Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, pp. 157989.##[4] Susantha, K., Hanbin, G., Usami, T. (2001). “Uniaxial stressstrain relationship of concrete confined by various shaped steel”. Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, pp. 133147.##[5] Hu, H., Huang, C., Wu, M., Wu, Y. (2003). “Nonlinear analysis of axially loaded concretefilled tube columns with confinement effect”. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, pp. 13221329.##[6] Hu, Y.H., Hwang, J. (2001). “Handbook of neural network signal processing”. CRC Press, USA.##[7] Demuth, H. Beale, M., Hagan, M. (2009). “Neural network toolbox 6: User’s Guide”. Version 6.0.2. Mathworks, Inc.##[8] Gardner, N.J., Jacobson, E.R. (1967). “Structural behavior of concrete filled steel tubes”. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 64, pp. 404413.##[9] Gardner, N.J. (1968). “Use of spiral welded steel tubes in pipe columns”. Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 65, pp. 937942.##[10] Knowles, R.B., Park, R. (1969). “Strength of concrete filled steel tubular columns”. Journal of Structural Division, Vol. 95, pp. 25652587.##[11] Zhanshuan, C.S.J. (1984). “Behavior and ultimate strength of short concretefilled steel tubular columns”. Journal of Building Structures, China Academy of Building Research.##[12] Kitada, T., Yoshida, Y., Nakai, H. (1987). “Fundamental study on elastoplastic behavior of concrete encased steel short tubular columns”. Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan, Vol. 28, pp. 237253.##[13] Tomii, M., Xiao, Y., Sakino, K. (1988). “Experimental study on the properties of concrete confined in circular steel tube”. Proceedings of the International Specialty Conference on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures, Harbin, China, pp. 2430.##[14] Tsuji, B., Nakashima, M., Morita, S. (1991). “Axial compression behavior of concrete filled circular steel tubes”. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on SteelConcrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, Association for International Cooperation and Research in SteelConcrete Composite Structures, pp. 1924.##[15] Luksha, L.K., Nesterovich, A.P. (1991). “Strength testing of largediameter concrete filled steel tubular members”. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on SteelConcrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, Association for International Cooperation and Research in SteelConcrete Composite Structures, pp. 6772.##[16] Sakino, K., Hayashi, H. (1991). “Behavior of concrete filled steel tubular stub columns under concentric loading”. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on SteelConcrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 2530.##[17] O’Shea, M.D., Bridge, R.Q. (2000). “Design of circular thinwalled concretefilled steel tubes”. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 126, pp. 12951303.##[18] Kang, H.S., Lim, S.H., Moon, T.S. (2002). “Behavior of CFT stub columns filled with PCC on concentrically compressive load”. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol. 18, pp. 2128.##[19] Giakoumelis, G., Lam, D. (2004). “Axial capacity of circular concretefilled tube columns”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 10491068.##[20] Han, L.H., Yao, G.H. (2003). “Behavior of concretefilled hollow structural steel (HSS) columns with preload on the steel tubes”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, pp. 14551475.##[21] Han, L.H., Yao, G.H. (2003). “Influence of concrete compaction on the strength of concretefilled steel RHS columns”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 751767.##[22] Naderpour, H., Kheyroddin A., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2010). Prediction of FRPConfined Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Networks, Composite Structures (Elsevier), Vol. 92, pp. 2817–2829.##[23] Kheyroddin, A., Naderpour, H., (2008). “Nonlinear finite element analysis of composite RC shear walls”. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 32, No. B2, pp. 7989.##[24] Kheyroddin, A., Hoseini Vaez, S.R., and Naderpour, H. (2008). “Numerical Analysis of SlabColumn Connections Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers”, Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 8, No 2, pp. 420431.##[25] Kheyroddin, A., Naderpour, H. (2007). “Plastic Hinge Rotation Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams”, International Journal of Civil Engineering (IJCE), Volume 5, No.1.##[26] Naderpour, H., Kheyroddin A., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2010). “Prediction of FRPConfined Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Networks”, Composite Structures (Elsevier), Vol. 92, pp. 2817–2829.##[27] Sakino, K., Nakahara, H., Morino, S., Nishiyama, I. (2004). “Behavior of centrally loaded concretefilled steeltube short columns”. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, pp. 180188.##[28] Zeghiche, J., Chaoui, K. (2005). “An experimental behavior of concretefilled steel tubular columns”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 5366.##[29] Oliveira, W.L.A. (2008). “Theoreticalexperimental analysis of circular concrete filled steel columns”. Doctoral thesis. São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo.##[30] Uy, B., Tao, Z., Han, L.H. (2011). “Behavior of short and slender concretefilled stainless steel tubular columns”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, pp. 360378.##[31] Denavit, M.D., Hajjar, J.F. (2010). “Nonlinear seismic analysis of circular concretefilled steel tube members and frames”. Report No. NSEL023, Newmark Structural Laboratory Report Series (ISSN 19409826), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, Illinois, March.##]