2019
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Experimental Strengthening of the Twoway Reinforced Concrete Slabs with High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) Prefabricated Sheets
2
2
Reinforced concrete structures are required to be strengthened and retrofitted for various reasons, including errors during design and/or construction, so in most cases, strengthening of structural elements is much more economical than rebuilding the structure. Employing HPFRCC with tensile stiffening behavior has been developed in order to strengthen the concrete structures over the recent few years. In this paper, applying HPFRCC for strengthening twoway reinforced concrete slabs has been investigated. A total of five twoway slabs were constructed and examined to reach their own collapse stage, one of the specimen was as nonstrengthened control slab, and the others were strengthened in various forms. The strengthening was carried out in two ways; by installing precast plate in the tensile area and the other by installing precast plate in both tensile and compression area at two different percentages of the fiber. The bending behavior, cracking, yielding and rupture of the experimental specimens were evaluated. The results revealed that the installation of HPFRCC prefabricated laminates significantly ameliorated the bending performance of reinforced slabs, so that the ductility, energy absorption value, cracking strength, and initial hardness of the slabs was increased and the crack width was decreased. Therefore, the proposed precast HPFRCC sheets can be employed in order to strengthen the deficient slabs.
1

1
17


Mohammad Mehdi
Fallah
Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
mmfallah@gmail.com


Mohammad
Sharbatdar
Associate Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
msharbatdar@semnan.ac.ir


Ali
Kheyroddin
Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
kheyroddin@semnan.ac.ir
twoway slab
Poly Propylene Synthetic
Fibers (PPS)Fibers
Reinforcement
HPFRCC
Bending performance
Strengthening
[[1] Radomski, W. (2002). Bridge rehabilitation. London: Imperial College Press.##[2] Zhang, J. Teng, J. Wong, Y. and Lu, Z. (2001). Behavior of twoway RC slabs externally bonded with steel plate. Journal of Structural Engineering, 127(4), 390397.##[3] Ebead, U. and Marzouk, H. (2002). Strengthening of twoway slabs using steel plates. Structural Journal. 99(1), 2331.##[4] Papanicolaou, C. Triantafillou, T. Papantoniou, I. and Balioukos, C. (2009). Strengthening of twoway reinforced concrete slabs with textile reinforced mortars (TRM). In: Proc of the 4th colloquium on textile reinforced structures (CTRS4) und zur 1. Anwendertagung. Eigenverlag: Technische Universität Dresden,409–420.##[5] Koutas, L. and Bournas, D. (2016). Flexural strengthening of twoway RC slabs with textilereinforced mortar: experimental investigation and design equations. Journal of Composites for Construction. 21(1), 04016065.##[6] Kexin, Z. and Quansheng, S. (2016). Strengthening of a Reinforced Concrete Bridge with Polyurethanecement Composite (PUC). The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 10(1), 768781.##[7] Limam, O. Foret, G. and Ehrlacher, A. (2003). RC twoway slabs strengthened with CFRP strips:experimental study and a limit analysis approach. Composite Structures, 60(4), 467471.##[8] Qian, K. and Li, B. (2012). Strengthening and retrofitting of RC flat slabs to mitigate progressive collapse by externally bonded CFRP laminates. Journal of Composites for Construction, 17(4), 554565.##[9] Jones, R. Swamy, R. and Charif, A. (1988). Plate separation and anchorage of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by epoxybonded steel plates. Structural Engineer, 66(5).##[10] Hussain, M. Sharif, A. Bauch, I, Al Sulaimani, G. (1995) Flexural behavior of precracked reinforced concrete beams strengthened externally by steel plates. Structural Journal, 92(1), 1423.##[11] Naaman, A. and Rienhardt, H.W. (2003). Setting the Stage, Toward Performance Based Classification of FRC Composites. In: High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC 4), Proc. of the 4th Int. RILEM Workshop, concrete journal, 43(6), 5762.##[12] Chanvillard, G. and Rigaud, S. (2003). Complete characterization of tensile properties of Ductal UHPFRC according to the French recommendations. In: Proceedings of the 4th International RILEM workshop High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites, RILEM Publications SARL, 2134.##[13] Li, V.C. (1993). From micromechanics to structural engineeringthe design of cementitous composites for civil engineering applications.##[14] FISCHER, G. and Shuxin, W. (2003). Design of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) for processing and workability requirements, in: Brittle Matrix Composites 7. Elsevier, 2936.##[15] Rosenblueth, E. and Meli, R. (1986). The 1985 Mexico earthquake. Concrete international, 8(5), 2334.##[16] Farhat, F. Nicolaides, D. Kanellopoulos, A. and Karihaloo, B. (2007). High performance fibrereinforced cementitious composite (CARDIFRC)–Performance and application to retrofitting. Engineering fracture mechanics, 74(12), 151167.##[17] Habel, K. and Gauvreau, P. (2008). Response of ultrahigh performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) to impact and static loading. Cement and Concrete Composites, 30(10), 938946.##[18] Choi, W. Yun, H. Cho, Ch. And Feo, L. (2014). Attempts to apply high performance fiberreinforced cement composite (HPFRCC) to infrastructures in South Korea. Composite Structures, 109, 211223.##[19] Hemmati, A. Kheyroddin, A. and Sharbatdar, M.K. (2015). Increasing the flexural capacity of RC beams using partially HPFRCC layers. Computers and Concrete, 16(4), 545568.##[20] Hemmati, A., Kheyroddin, A., Sharbatdar, M.K., “Flexural Behavior of Reinforced HPFRCC Beams”, Journal of Rihabilitation in Civil Engieering, Vol. 1 (2013) 6677.##[21] Hemmati, A., Kheyroddin, A. and Sharbatdar, M.K. (2014), “Plastic hinge rotation capacity of reinforced HPFRCC beams”, J. Struct. Eng., 141(2), 04014111.##[22] Behzard, P. Sharbatdar, M.K. and Kheyroddin, A. (2016). A different NSM FRP technique for strengthening of RC twoway slabs with low clear cover thickness. Scientia Iranica A, 23(2), 520534.##[23] Hemmati, A. Kheyroddin, A. Sharbatdar, M.K. Park, Y. and Abolmaali, A. (2016). Ductile behavior of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC) frames. Construction and Building Materials, 115, 681689.##[24] Abbaszade, M.A. Sharbatdar, M.K. and Kheyroddin, A. (2017). Strain Hardening Cementitous Comosites for Retrofitting TwoWay RC Slabs. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(2), 12511282.##[25] Alaee, F. (2002). Retrofitting of concrete structures using high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC). Cardiff University.##[26] Yun, H.D. Rokugo, K. Izuka, T. and Lim, S. (2011). Crackdamage mitigation of RC oneway slabs with a strainhardening cementbased composite layer. Magazine of Concrete Research, 63(7), 493509.##[27] Naghibdehi, M. Mastali, M. Sharbatdar, M.K. and Naghibdehi, M.G. (2014). Flexural performance of functionally graded RC crosssection with steel and PP fibres. Magazine of Concrete Research, 66(5), 219233.##[28] Banthia, N. and Nandakumar, N. (2003). Crack growth resistance of hybrid fiber reinforced cement composites. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(1), 19.##[29] Meng, W. and Khayat, K.H. (2017). Improving flexural performance of ultrahighperformance concrete by rheology control of suspending mortar. Composites Part B: Engineering, 117, 2634.##[30] Meng, W. Valipour, M. and Khayat, K.H. (2017). Optimization and performance of costeffective ultrahigh performance concrete. Materials and structures, 50(1), 29.##[31] Li, V.C. Wang, S. Wang, Sh, and Wu, C. (2001). Tensile strainhardening behavior of polyvinyl alcohol engineered cementitious composite (PVAECC). ACI Materials JournalAmerican Concrete Institute, 98(6), 483492.##[32] Hemmati, A. Kheyroddin, A. and Sharbatdar, M.K. (2013). Plastic hinge rotation capacity of reinforced HPFRCC beams. Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(2), 04014111.##[33] Meng, W. and Khayat, K.H. (2016). Experimental and Numerical Studies on Flexural Behavior of UltrahighPerformance Concrete Panels Reinforced with Embedded Glass FiberReinforced Polymer Grids. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2592, 3844.##[34] Afefy, H. and Fawzy, T.M. (2013). Strengthening of RC oneway slabs including cutout using different techniques. Engineering Structures, 57, 2336.##[35] Robert, Park. (1998). Ductility evalution from laboratory and analytical testing. TokyoKyoto, JAPAN: Ninth world Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 606607.##]
Estimation of the Elastic Properties of Important Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Nano Scale  a Molecular Dynamics Approach
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Approximately, 50 to 70 percent of hydration products in hydrated cement paste are polymorphisms of CSH gel. It is highly influential in the final properties of hardened cement paste. Distinguishing CSH nanostructure significantly leads to determine its macro scale ensemble properties. In this paper, a nonoscale modeling is employed. In order to carry it out, the major CSH compounds, with a vast range ratios of Ca/Si from 0.5 to 3 were selected and applied in different simulations. These materials included tobermorite 9Å, tobermorite 11Å, tobermorite 14Å, clinotobermorite, jennite, afwillite, okenite, jaffeite, foshagite, and wollastonite. Furthermore, the molecular dynamics method was employed to evaluate some consequential mechanical properties such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and poisson ratio. Five different force fields (COMPASS, COMPASS II, ClayFF, INTERFACE and Universal) were applied and compared with each other to be able to measure the mechanical properties of these compounds. Lastly, the properties of two types of CSH with high and low density were computed using MoriTanaka method. The main aim of this paper is to distinguish the most similar natural CSH material to CSH from cement hydration and finding appropriate force filed.
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36


Amir
Tarighat
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
tarighat@srtu.edu


Davoud
Tavakoli
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Iran
d.tavakoli@sru.ac.ir
Calcium silicate hydrates
Mechanical properties
Molecular dynamics simulation
Nanoscale
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Estimation of CSH and calcium hydroxide for cement pastes containing slag and silica fume. Construction and Building Materials, 30, 505515.##[7] Richardson, I. G. (2008). The calcium silicate hydrates. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(2), 137158.##[8] Manzano, H., Dolado.J.S, Guerrero.A., & Ayuela.A. (2007) Mechanical properties of crystalline Calciumsilicatehydrates: comparison with cementitious CSH gels, Phys. stat. sol. 204, 1775–1780.##[9] Selvam, R.P., Murray, S.J., Jankiram Subramani, V., & Hall, K.D. (2009) Potential application of nanotechnology on cement based materials, Report: Mack Blackwell Transportation Center, University of Arkansas, MBTC DOT 2095/3004.##[10] Bankura, A., & Chandra, A. (2005). Hydration and translocation of an excess proton in water clusters: Anab initio molecular dynamics study. Pramana, 65(4), 763768. ##[11] Zehtab, B., & Tarighat, A. (2016). Diffusion study for chloride ions and water molecules in CSH gel in nanoscale using molecular dynamics: Case study of tobermorite. ADVANCES IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION, 4(4), 305317.##[12] Zehtab, B., & Tarighat, A. (2017). Molecular dynamics simulation to assess the effect of temperature on diffusion coefficients of different ions and water molecules in CSH. Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials, 115.##[13] Tavakoli, D., Tarighat, A., & Beheshtian, J. (2017). Nanoscale investigation of the influence of water on the elastic properties of C–S–H gel by molecular simulation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 1464420717740926.##[14] Tarighat, A., & Tavakoli, D. (2016). Estimation of mechanical properties of hardened cement paste with molecular dynamics simulation method at nano scale. Modares Mechanical Engineering, 16(6), 7178.##[15] Hughes, J. J., & Trtik, P. (2004). Micromechanical properties of cement paste measured by depthsensing nanoindentation: a preliminary correlation of physical properties with phase type. Materials characterization, 53(2), 223231.##[16] Constantinides, G., & Ulm, F. J. (2007). The nanogranular nature of C–S–H. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 55(1), 6490.##[17] Zhu, W., Hughes, J. J., Bicanic, N., & Pearce, C. J. (2007). Nanoindentation mapping of mechanical properties of cement paste and natural rocks. Materials characterization, 58(11), 11891198.##[18] Vandamme, M., Ulm, F. J., & Fonollosa, P. (2010). Nanogranular packing of C–S–H at substochiometric conditions. Cement and Concrete Research, 40(1), 1426.##[19] Oh, J. E., Clark, S. M., Wenk, H. R., & Monteiro, P. J. (2012). Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14Å tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron Xray diffraction. Cement and Concrete Research, 42(2), 397403.##[20] Faucon, P., Delaye, J.M., & Virlet, J. (1996) Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Structure of Calcium Hydrates. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 127, 92–97.##[21] Janakiram Subramani, V., Murray, S., Panneer Selvam, R., & Hall, K. D. (2009). Atomic Structure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates Using Molecular Mechanics. In Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting (No. 090200).##[22] Murray, S.J., Jankiram Subramani, V., Selvam, R.P., & Hall, K.D. (2010) Molecular dynamics to understand the mechanical behavior of cement paste. Transportation Research Record 2142, 75–82.##[23] Pellenq, R. M., Lequeux, N., & Van Damme, H. (2008). Engineering the bonding scheme in C–S–H: The ionocovalent framework. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(2), 159174.##[24] Shahsavari, R., Pellenq, R.J.M., & Ulm, F.J. (2011) Empirical force fields s for complex hydrated calciosilicate layered materials, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 13, 10021011.##[25] Qomi, M.J.A., Krakowiak, K.J., Bauchy, M., Stewart, K.L., Shahsavari, R., Jagannathan, D., Brommer, D.B., Baronnet, A., Buehler, M.J., Yip, S., Ulm, F.J., Van Vliet, K.J., & Pellenq, R.J.M. (2014) combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates, Nature Comunications, 5:4960, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5960##[26] Tavakoli, D., & Tarighat, A. (2016). Molecular dynamics study on the mechanical properties of Portland cement clinker phases. Computational Materials Science, 119, 6573.##[27] AlOstaz, A., W. Wu, AHD. Cheng, and C. R. Song. "A molecular dynamics and microporomechanics study on the mechanical properties of major constituents of hydrated cement." Composites Part B: Engineering 41, no. 7 (2010): 543549.##[28] Hajilar, S., & Shafei, B. (2015) Nanoscale investigation of elastic properties of hydrated cement paste constituents using molecular dynamics simulations. Computational Materials Science 101, 216226.##[29] Bullard J.W., Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) user guide.: Materials and Construction Research Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland USA (2011).##[30] van Breugel K., Numerical simulation of hydration and microstructural development in hardening cementbased materials (I) Theory.: Cement and Concrete Research, 25(2) (1995) 319331.##[31] Koenders E.A.B. and van Breugel K., Numerical modeling of autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste.: Cement and Concrete Research, 27(10) (1997) 14891499.##[32] Bishnoi Sh., Vector Modelling of Hydrating Cement Microstructure and Kinetics.: PhD thesis, EPFL university, Switzerland, (2009).##[33] Maekawa K., Chaube R.P., and Kishi T., Modelling of Concrete Performance.: London, E&FN SPON. (1999).##[34] Koenders E.A.B., Schlangen E., and van Breugel K., Multiscale modeling: The Delft Code.: International RILEM symposium on concrete modeling CONMOD’08, 2628 May 2008, Delft, The Netherlands.##[35] Zhang M., Multiscale Lattice BoltzmannFinite Element Modelling of Transport Properties in Cementbased Materials.: PhD thesis, Delft university, the Netherlands, (2013).##[36] Hou, D. (2014). Molecular simulation on the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel.##[37] Plassard, C., Lesniewska, E., Pochard, I., & Nonat, A. (2004). Investigation of the surface structure and elastic properties of calcium silicate hydrates at the nanoscale. Ultramicroscopy, 100(3), 331338.##[38] Richardson, I.G. and G.W. Groves, Models for the composition and structure of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel in hardened tricalcium silicate pastes. Cement and Concrete Research, 1992. 22(6): p. 10011010.##[39] Richardson, I.G., The nature of the hydration products in hardened cement pastes. Cement & Concrete Composites, 2000. 22(2): p. 97113.##[40] Manzano Moro, H. (2014). Atomistic simulation studies of the cement paste components. Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatearen Argitalpen Zerbitzua.##[41] Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (2001). The real structure of tobermorite 11Å normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 13(3), 577590.##[42] Richardson, I. G. (2004). Tobermorite/jenniteand tobermorite/calcium hydroxidebased models for the structure of CSH: applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, βdicalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blastfurnace slag, metakaolin, or silica fume. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(9), 17331777.##[43] Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (1999). Tobermorites: Their real structure and orderdisorder (OD) character. American Mineralogist, 84, 16131621.##[44] Hamid, S.A., The crystal structure of 11Å natural tobermorite Ca2.25[Si3O7.5(OH)1.5]• 1 H2O. Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie, 1891. 154: p. 189198.##[45] Bonaccorsi, E., S. Merlino, and A.R. Kampf, The crystal structure of tobermorite 14Å (Plombierite), a CSH phase. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2005. 88(3): p. 505512.##[46] Bonaccorsi, E., Merlino, S., & Taylor, H. F. W. (2004). The crystal structure of jennite, Ca9 Si6O18(OH)6•8H2O. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(9), 14811488.##[47] Carpenter, A.B.; Chalmers, R.A.; Gard, J.A.; Speakman, K.; Taylor, H.F.W. (1966), "Jennite, a new mineral" , American Mineralogist 51: 56–74, retrieved 20090204.##[48] Li, Z. (2011). Advanced concrete technology. John Wiley & Sons.##[49] Gard, J. A., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1960). The crystal structure of foshagite. Acta Crystallographica, 13(10), 785793.##[50] Gard, J. A., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1956). Okenite and nekoite (a new mineral). Mineral. Mag, 31, 520.##[51] Merlino, S. (1983). Okenite, Ca10Si18O46.18H2O; the first example of a chain and sheet silicate. American Mineralogist, 68(56), 614622.##[52] Ohashi, Y. and L.W. Finger, Role of octahedral cations in pyroxenoid crystal chemistry. 1. Bustamite, wollastonite and pectoliteschizoliteserandite series. American Mineralogist, 1978. 63(34): p. 274288.##[53] Malik, K. M. A., & Jeffery, J. W. (1976). A reinvestigation of the structure of afwillite. Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, 32(2), 475480.##[54] Yamnova, N. A., Sarp, K., EgorovTismenko, Y. K., Pushcharovski, D., & Dasgupta, G. (1993). Crystal structure of jaffeite. Crystallography reports, 38(4), 464467.##[55] Alder, B. J.; T. E. Wainwright (1959). "Studies in Molecular Dynamics. I. General Method". J. Chem. Phys. 31 (2): 459.##[56] Shu, Xin, et al. 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UFF, a full periodic table force field for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 114(25), 1002410035.##[62] Cygan, R.T., J.J. Liang, and A.G. Kalinichev, Molecular models of hydroxide, oxyhydroxide, and clay phases and the development of a general force field. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2004. 108(4): p. 12551266.##[63] Galmarini, S. C. (2013). Atomistic simulation of cementitious systems.##[64] Dauber‐Osguthorpe, P., Roberts, V. A., Osguthorpe, D. J., Wolff, J., Genest, M., & Hagler, A. T. (1988). Structure and energetics of ligand binding to proteins: Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase‐trimethoprim, a drug‐receptor system. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 4(1), 3147.##[65] Mishra, R. K.; Flatt, R. J.; Heinz, H. Force Field for Tricalcium Silicate and Insight into Nanoscale Properties: Cleavage, Initial Hydration, and Adsorption of Organic Molecules. J. Phys. Chem. 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The elastic behaviour of a crystalline aggregate. Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section A, 65(5), 349.##[72] Dharmawardhana, C. C., Misra, A., Aryal, S., Rulis, P., & Ching, W. Y. (2013). Role of interatomic bonding in the mechanical anisotropy and interlayer cohesion of CSH crystals. Cement and Concrete Research, 52, 123130.##[73] Laugesen, J. L. (2004). Density functional calculation of elastic properties of portlandite and foshagite. SPECIAL PUBLICATIONROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY, 292, 185192.##[74] Constantinides, G., & Ulm, F. J. (2004). The effect of two types of CSH on the elasticity of cementbased materials: Results from nanoindentation and micromechanical modeling. Cement and concrete research, 34(1), 6780.##[75] C. Plassard, E. Lesniewska, I. Pochard, and A. Nonat, “Intrinsic Elastic Properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrates by Nanoindentation”; in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 2007##[76] R. Alizadeh, J. J. Beaudoin, and L. Raki, “Viscoelastic Nature of Calcium Silicate Hydrate,” Cement Concr. Compos., 32 [5] 369–76 (2010).##[77] Dormieux, L., D. Kondo, and F.J. Ulm, Microporomechanics. 2006: John Wiley & Sons.##[78] Mori, T., & Tanaka, K. (1973). Average stress in matrix and average elastic energy of materials with misfitting inclusions. Acta metallurgica, 21(5), 571574.##[79] Mondal, P., Shah, S. P., & Marks, L. (2007). A reliable technique to determine the local mechanical properties at the nanoscale for cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 37(10), 14401444.##]
Comparison of Progressive Collapse Capacity of Steel Moment Resisting Frames and Dual Systems with Buckling Retrained Braces
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Progressive collapse refers to a condition where local failure of a primary structural component leads to the collapse of neighboring members and the whole structure, consequently. In the present study, the progressive collapse potential of seismically designed steel dual systems with buckling restrained braces is inquired applying the alternate path method, and their performances are compared with those of the conventional intermediate moment resisting frames. Static nonlinear Pushdown and dynamic analyses under gravity loads specified in GSA guideline are conducted to capture the progressive collapse response of the structures as a result to the column and adjacent BRBs removal, and their ability of absorbing the destructive effects of member loss is investigated. It was observed that, compared with the intermediate moment resisting frames, generally the dual systems with buckling restrained braces provided appropriate alternative path for redistributing the generated loads caused by member loss and the results varied more significantly depending on the variables such as location of column loss, or number of stories. Moreover, in the most column removal scenarios, steel dual systems are more capable to resist the progressive collapse loads and maintain the structural overall integrity.
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Nader
Hoveidae
Assistant Professor, Civil Eng. Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, East Azarbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
hoveidaei@azaruniv.ac.ir


Bahador
Habibi pourzare
Graduate Student, Civil Eng. Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, East Azarbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
bahador.habibipour@gmail.com
Progressive collapse
Alternate path method
Nonlinear static analysis
PushDown Analysis
nonlinear dynamic analysis
Dual Systems
Buckling Restrained Brace
Moment Resisting Frame
[[1] Ghowsi, A. and Sahoo, D., “Seismic Performance of Bucklingrestrained Braced Frames with Varying Beamcolumn Connections”, International Journal of Steel Structures, Vol 13, No. 4, (2013), pp 607621.##[2] Nair, R.S., “Preventing disproportionate collapse”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 309314.##[3] Ellingwood, B.R., “Mitigating risk from abnormal loads and progressive collapse”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 315323.##[4] Kaewkulchai, G. and Williamson, E., “Modeling the impact of failed members for progressive collapse analysis of frame structures”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 375383.##[5] Dusenberry, D.O. and Hamburger, R.O., “Practical means for energybased analyses of disproportionate collapse potential", Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities”, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 336348.##[6] GSA, Progressive collapse analysis and design guidelines for new federal office buildings and major modernization projects, The US General Services Administration, Washington, DC, (2003).##[7] UFC, Design of buildings to resist progressive collapse, Unified Facilities Criteria, Department of Defense, USA, (2009).##[8] Ruth, P., Marchand, K.A. and Williamson, E.B. (2006), “Static equivalency in progressive collapse alternate path analysis: Reducing conservatism while retaining structural integrity”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 349364.##[9] Marjanishvili, S. and Agnew, E., “Comparison of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 4, (2006), pp 365374.##[10] Liu, M., “Progressive collapse design of seismic steel frames using structural optimization”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, No. 3, (2011), pp 322332.##[11] Khandelwal, K., ElTawil, S. and Sadek, F., “Progressive collapse analysis of seismically designed steel braced frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 65, No. 3, (2009), pp 699708.##[12] Kim, J. and Kim, T., “Assessment of progressive collapse resisting capacity of steel moment frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 65(1), (2009), pp 169179.##[13] Kim, J., Lee, Y. and Choi, H., “Progressive collapse resisting capacity of braced frames”, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 20(2), (2011), pp 257270.##[14] Tavakoli, H. and Kiakojouri, F., “Influence of sudden column loss on dynamic response of steel moment frames under blast loading” International Journal of EngineeringTransactions B: Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2, (2013), pp 197206.##[15] Parsaeifard, N. and NateghiA, F., “The effect of local damage on energy absorption of steel frame buildings during earthquake”, International Journal of EngineeringTransactions B: Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2, (2012), pp 143152.##[16] Chen, Ch.H., Zhu, Y.F., Yao, Y., Huang, Y. and Long, X., “An evaluation method to predict progressive collapse resistance of steel frame structures”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 122, (2016), pp 238–250.##[17] Mashhadi, M. and Saffari, H., “Modification of dynamic increase factor to assess progressive collapse potential of structures”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 138, (2017), pp 72–78.##[18] Zhong, W., Meng, B. and Hao, J., “Performance of different stiffness connections against progressive collapse”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 135, (2017), pp 162–175.##[19] Salmasi, A. Ch. and Sheidaii, M. R., “Assessment of Eccentrically Braced Frames Strength Against Progressive Collapse” International Journal of Steel Structures, Vol. 17(2), (2017), pp 543551.##[20] Bandyopadhyay, M. and Banik A., “Improvement of progressive collapse resistance potential of semirigid jointed steel frames through bracings”, International Journal of protective structures, Vol. 7(4), (2016), pp 518–546.##[21] Gerasimidis, S. and Baniotopoulos, C., “Steel moment frames column loss analysis: The influence of time step size”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, No. 4, (2011), pp 557564.##[22] SeismoSoft. SeismoStruct —a computer program for static and dynamic non linear analysis of framed structures. Available online from: ⟨www.seismosoft.com⟩ SeismoSoft, Ld,Pavia, Italy, (2016).##[23] Menegotto M. and Pinto P.E., “Method of analysis for cyclically loaded R.C. plane frames including changes in geometry and nonelastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending”, Symposium on the Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Zurich, Switzerland, (1973), pp 1522.##[24] Filippou F.C., Popov E.P. and Bertero V.V., “Effects of bond deterioration on hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete joints”, Report EERC 8319, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, (1983).##[25] Standard No. 2800, 4th Edition, “Iranian code of practice for seismic resisting design of buildings”, Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, (2014).##[26] AISC36010, “Specifications for structural steel buildings”, American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. Chicago, (2010).##[27] UFC, Design of buildings to resist progressive collapse, Unified Facilities Criteria, Department of Defense, USA, (2009).##]
Seismic Evaluation of FlexibleBase LowRise Steel Frames Using BeamOnNonlinearWinklerFoundation Modeling of Shallow Footings
2
2
Recent studies have revealed that the influences of SoilStructure Interaction (SSI) can be detrimental to the seismic behavior of structure, and hence ignoring this phenomenon in analysis and design may result in to an unconservative design. The aim of this paper is to quantify the effects of nonlinear SSI on the seismic response of a lowrise special moment frame subjected to a family of ground motions with three hazard levels. To this end, seismic behavior of a 5story special steel frame founded on linear and nonlinear flexiblebase foundations are compared to the conventional fixedbase frame counterpart. The wellknown BeamonNonlinearWinklerFoundation (BNWF) approach is employed to model nonlinear soilshallow foundation. Nonlinear static and time history dynamic analyses were conducted applying the OPENSEES platform in order to inquire the effect of modeling and ground motion parameters on their seismic performance. The results manifested some degrees of inaccuracy in the fixedbase and linear SSI assumptions when compared to its nonlinear flexiblebase counterpart. Moreover, it is also found that disregarding the foundation flexibility effect may lead to over prediction of the interstory drift, force and ductility demands of the lowrise steel structure.
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57
71


Behnoud
Ganjavi
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Iran
b.ganjavi@umz.ac.ir


Alireza
Rezagholilou
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Australia
ali.rezagholilou@curtin.edu.au
Nonlinear SoilStructure Interaction
Seismic evaluation
Lowrise building
Winkler Model
Shallow Foundations
[[1] Veletsos, A. S., and Meek, J. W. (1974). “Dynamic behavior of building foundation systems.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 3(2), 121138.##[2] Bielak J. (1978). “Dynamic response of non‐linear building‐foundation systems”, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 6: 1730.##[3] Wolf JP. (1985). Dynamic soilstructure interaction: Prentice Hall int.##[4] Stewart JP, Fenves GL, Seed RB. (1999). “Seismic soil–structure interaction in buildings. I: analytical methods”. ASCE J Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 125:26–37.##[5] ATC40. (1996). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings. Redwood City (CA): Applied Technology Council (ATC).##[6] NEHRP. (2003). Recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings. Building seismic safety council. Washington (DC).##[7] FEMA. (2003). Recommended seismic evaluation and upgrade criteria for existing welded steel momentframe buildings. Federal Emergency Management Agency.##[8] ASCE710. (2010). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings, Reston, VA.##[9] Veletsos, A. S., and Nair, V. V. (1975). “Seismic interaction of structures on hysteretic foundations”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 101(1): 109–129.##[10] Chopra, A., and Yim, S. C. (1985). “Simplified earthquake analysis of structures with foundation uplift.” Journal of Structural Engineering., 111:(4), 906–930.##[11] Kim, Y. S., and Roesset, J. M. (2004). “Effect of nonlinear soil behavior on inelastic seismic response of a structure.” International Journal of Geomechanics., 4:(2), 104114.##[12] Wolf JP. (1994). Foundation vibration analysis using simple physical models: Pearson Education.##[13] Ganjavi B, Hao H. (2012). “A parametric study on the evaluation of ductility demand distribution in multidegreeoffreedom systems considering soil–structure interaction effects”, Engineering Structures, 43: 88104.##[14] Ganjavi B, Hajirasouliha I, Bolourchi A. (2016). “Optimum lateral load distribution for seismic design of nonlinear shearbuildings considering soilstructure interaction”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 88 35668.##[15] Mahsuli M, Ghannad MA. “The effect of foundation embedment on inelastic response of structures”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. 2009;38:42337.##[16] Ogut Oc, Mori M, Fukuwa N. “Effect of rocking foundation input motion on the in inelastic behavior of structures”. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering. 2016;81:44757.##[18] Ganjavi B, Hao H, Hajirasouliha I. (2016). Influence of Higher Modes on Strength and Ductility Demands of Soil–Structure Systems, Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 1650006.##[17] Ganjavi B, Azad A, Bararnia M. (2018). “Soil Structure Interaction Effects on Hysteretic Energy Demand for Stiffness Degrading Systems Built on Flexible Soil Sites” , Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 6(2) 8197.##[19] N. Hassani, M. Bararnia, G.G. Amiri. (2018). “Effect of soilstructure interaction on inelastic displacement ratios of degrading structures”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 104:7587.##[20] Bararnia M, Hassani N, Ganjavi B, Amiri G.G. (2018). “Estimation of inelastic displacement ratios for soilstructure systems with embedded foundation considering kinematic and inertial interaction effects”. Engineering Structures, 159:252264.##[21] Maheshwari, B. K., and Sarkar, R. (2011). “Seismic behavior of soilpile structure interaction in liquefiable soils: Parametric study.” International Journal of Geomechanics., 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.19435622.0000087, 335–347.##[22] Tabatabaiefar, S. H. R., Fatahi, B., and Samali, B. (2013). “Seismic behavior of building frames considering dynamic soilstructure interaction.” Int. J. Geomech., 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.19435622.0000231, 409–420.##[23] Hokmabadi, A. S., Fatahi, B., and Samali, B. (2015). “Physical modeling of seismic soilpilestructure interaction for buildings on soft soils.” Int. J. Geomech., 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.19435622.0000396, 040140461.##[24] Allotey, N., and Naggar, M. H. E. (2007). “An investigation into the Winkler modeling of the cyclic response of rigid footings.” Soil Dynamic and Earthquake Engineering., 28, 44–57.##[25] Horvath, J. S., and Colasanti, R. J. (2011). “Practical subgrade model for improved soilstructure interaction analysis: Model development.” Int. J. Geomech., 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.19435622.0000070, 59–64.##[26] Raychowdhury, P., and Hutchinson, T. C. (2009). “Performance evaluation of a nonlinearWinklerbased shallow foundation model using centrifuge test results.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics., 38(5), 679–698.##[27] Raychowdhury, P., and Hutchinson, T. C. (2011). “Performance of seismically loaded shear walls on nonlinear shallow foundations.” International Journal of Numerical Analytical Methods Geomechanics., 35(7), 846–858.##[28] Raychowdhury, P., and Singh, P. (2012). “Effect of nonlinear soilstructure interaction on seismic response of lowrise SMRF buildings.” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(4), 541551.##[29] Marzban, S., Banazadeh, M. and Azarbakht, A. (2014) Seismic performance of reinforced concrete shear wall frames considering soilfoundationstructure interaction", The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23; 302318.##[30] Vivek, B., Raychowdhury, P. (2017). “Influence of SSI on Period and Damping of Buildings Supported by Shallow Footings on Cohesionless Soil”. International Journal of Geomechanics https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.19435622.0000890##[31] Harden CW, Hutchinson T, Martin GR, Kutter BL. (2005). “Numerical modeling of the nonlinear cyclic response of shallow foundations”. Technical Report 2005/04, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, PEER.##[32] R.W. Boulanger. (2000). The PySimple1, TzSimple1, and QzSimple1 Material Models, Documentation for the OpenSees platform; URL: h http://opensees. Berkeley.##[33] Gazetas G. (1991). Formulas and charts for impedances of surface and embedded foundations. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.117(9): 136381.##[34] Terzaghi K. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. New York: Wiley; 1943.##[35] Meyerhof GG. (1963). “Some recent research on the bearing capacity of foundations”. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 1(1):16–26.##[36] Gajan, S., Raychowdhury, P., Hutchinson, T.C., Kutter, B.L. and Stewart, J.P. (2010). Application and validation of practical tools for nonlinear soilfoundation interaction analysis", Earthquake Spectra, 26(1): 111129.##[37]. Standard No. 2800. Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, 4th Edition, 2013.##[38] Raychowdhury, P. (2011). “Seismic response of lowrise steel momentresisting frame (SMRF) buildings incorporating nonlinear soilstructure interaction (SSI)", Engineering Structures, 33: 958967.##]
Experimental and FDM Study on GeogridSoil Interaction by Reformed Direct Shear Test Apparatus
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2
This paper presents the effect of geogrid tensile strength by computing the pullout resistance and the geogridsoil interaction mechanism. In order to inquire this interface, a series of pullout tests have been conducted by a large scale reformed direct shear test apparatus in the both cohesive and granular soils. In numerical, the finite difference software FLAC3D has been carried out on experimental tests and the results are compared with findings from laboratory tests and to complete investigation results. The results reveal that the tensile strength of geogrids has a major role in the interface behavior. The effect of the soil type also is discussed. The acquired results indicate that the geogrids with low tensile strength have higher pullout resistance in the low normal stress on the surface, this effect reversed as the normal applied stress is increased. Numerical analysis only estimates the pullout strength with good agreement in the high normal stresses. Furthermore, it is found that the effective particle size of soil is close to the geogrid thickness by comparing two sands with different grain size.
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72
87


Ali
Namaei
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
namaeiali@yahoo.com


Mohammad Ali
Arjomand
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
arjomand@srttu.edu


Arash
Aminaee
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
arash.aminaee@srttu.edu
geogrid
Interaction
tensile strength
pullout resistance
[[1] Bergado, D.T., Chai, J.C., Abiera, H.O., Alfaro, M.C., Balasubramaniam. (1993). ''Interaction between Cohesive – Frictional Soil and Various Grid Reinforcements''. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 327 – 349.##[2] Korner, R. M. (2005). ''Designing with geosynthetic''. 5th ed. 338.##[3] Moraci, N., Recalcati, P. (2006). ''Factors affecting the pullout behaviour of extruded geogrids embedded in a compacted granular soil''. Geotext. Geomembr. 24 (4), 220242.##[4] Arulrajah, A., Rahman, M.A., Piratheepan, J., Bo, M.W., Imteaz, M.A. (2014). ''Evaluation of interface shear strength properties of geogridreinforced construction and demolition materials using a modified largescale direct shear testing apparatus'. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 26 (5), 974e982.##[5] Lopes, M.L., Ladeira, M. (1996). 'Influence of the confinement, soil density and displacement rate on soil geogrid interaction''. Geotext. Geomembr. 14 (10), 543554.##[6] Abdi, M.R., Arjomand, M.A. (2011). ''Pullout tests conducted on clay reinforced with geogrid encapsulated in thin layers of sand''. Geotext. Geomembr. 29 (6), 588e595.##[7] Naeini, S.A., Khalaj, M., Izadi, E. (2013). ''Interfacial shear strength of silty sandegeogrid composite''. Proc. ICE Geotech. Eng. 166 (1), 6775.##[8] Liu, C.N., Yang, K.H., Nguyen, M.D. (2014). ''Behavior of geogrid reinforced sand and effect of reinforcement anchorage in largescale plane strain compression''. Geotext. Geomembr. 42 (5), 479493.##[9] Bergado, D.T., Chai, J.C. (1994). ''Pullout forcedisplacement relationship of extensible grid reinforcements''. Geotext. Geomembr. 13 (5), 295316.##[10] Ochiai, H., Yasufuku, N., Yamaji, T., Xu, G.L., Hirai, T. (1996). ''Experimental evaluation of reinforcement in geogrid soil structure''. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Kyushu, Japan, pp. 249254.##[11] Moraci, N., Cardile, G. (2012). ''Deformative behaviour of different geogrids embedded in a granular soil under monotonic and cyclic pullout loads''. Geotext. Geomembr. 32, 104110.##[12] Mosallanezhad, M., Taghavi, S.S., Hataf, N., Alfaro, M. (2016). ''Experimental and numerical studies of the performance of the new reinforcement system under pullout conditions''. Geotext. Geomembr. 44 (1), 7080.##[13] Esfandiari, J., Selamat, M.R. (2012). ''Laboratory investigation on the effect of transverse member on pull out capacity of metal strip reinforcement in sand''. Geotext. Geomembr. 35, 4149.##[14] Bathurst, R.J., Ezzein, F.M. (2015). ''Geogrid and soil displacement observations during pullout using a transparent granular soil''. Geotech. Test. J. 38 (5), 673685.##[15] Mahmoud, G., Mohamed, A. (2013). ''Three dimensional finite element analysis of soil geogrid interaction under pullout loading condition''. GeoMonteral, 66th Canadian Geotechnical Conference , 260, 452458.##[16] Ezzein, F.M., Bathurst, R.J., Kongkitkul, W. (2015). ''Nonlinear loadestrain modeling of polypropylene geogrids during constant rateofstrain loading''. Polym. Eng. Sci. 55 (7), 16171627.##[17] Qian, Y., Mishra, D., Tutumluer, E., Kazmee, H.A. (2015). ''Characterization of geogrid reinforced ballast behavior at different levels of degradation through triaxial shear strength test and discrete element modeling''. Geotex. and Geomembr., 43(5), 393402.##[18] Wang, Z., Jacobs, F., Ziegler, M. (2016). ''Experimental and DEM investigation of geogridsoil interaction under pullout loads''. Geotex. and Geomembr. 44, 230246.##[19] ASTM D670601. (2001). ''Standard test method for measuring geosynthetic pullout resistance in soil''. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA.##[20] ASTM D5321, 2017. ''Standard Test Method for Determining the Shear Strength of SoilGeosynthetic and GeosyntheticGeosynthetic Interfaces by Direct Shear. Annual Book of ASTM Standards''. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA.##[21] Palmeira, E.M. (2004). ''Bearing force mobilisation in pullout tests on geogrids''. Geotext. Geomembr. 22 (6), 481509.##[22] Subaida, E.A., Chandrakaran, S., Sankar, N. (2008). ''Experimental investigations on tensile and pullout behavior of woven coir geotextiles''. Geotex. and Geomembr. 26(2008), 384392.##]
Numerical Study on the Flexural Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars
2
2
Enhancement of the response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams applying fiberreinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement bars has become a popular structural technique over the past two decades as a result to the wellknown advantages of FRP composites including their high strengthtoweight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. This study presents numerical investigation of 20 concrete beams internally reinforced with GFRP bars without web reinforcement. The accuracy of the nonlinear finite element model in ABAQUS software is first validated against experimental data from the literature. The study presents an investigation into the behaviour of FRP reinforced concrete beams including the evaluation of geometrical properties effects. In particular, the study is focused on the effects of span/depth ratio, the reinforcement ratio and the effective depth of the beam, aiming to correct deficiencies in this area in existing knowledge. It’s been revealed that the finite element model is capable of accurately simulating the flexural behaviour of FRP reinforced beams. It was able to predict, with high accuracy, the forcedisplacement response the beam. Results manifested that FRP reinforcement is a proper solution in order to boost the ductility of RC beam members. Moreover, although that increasing in the span/depth ratio of the beam decreases beam’s rigidity, however; it also postpones the yielding point in the beam’s flexural response and leads to a higher level of displacement ductility for the beam.
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88
99


Mohammad Morad
Shirmardi
M.Sc., Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Iran
m_m_shirmardi@yahoo.com


Mohammad Reza
Mohammadizadeh
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Iran
mrzmohammadizadeh@yahoo.com
RC Beam
GFRP bars
Flexure behaviour
Numerical investigation
[[1] Meier U., (1987). “Bridge Repair with High Performance Composite Materials”, Material und Technik, Vol. 15, pp. 125128 (in German and in French).##[2] Andermatt M., Lubell A., (2013). “Behavior of concrete deep beams reinforced with internal fiberreinforced polymer–experimental study”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 110, pp 585–594.##[3] Duthinh D., Starnes M., (2001). “Strength and Ductility of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Carbon FRP and Steel”, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.##[4] Oller W., Marí A., Bair J.M., Cladera A., (2015). “Shear design of reinforced concrete beams with FRP longitudinal and transverse reinforcement”, Journal of Composites, PartB, Vol. 74, pp. 104122.##[5] ElNemr A., Ahmed E., Benmokrane, B., (2013). “Flexural Behavior on serviceability of normal and highstrength concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.110(6), pp. 10771088.##[6] Arivalagan, S., (2012). “Engineering of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars and stainless steel”, Structural Engineering, Glob J Inc, Vol.12(1), pp. 16.##[7] Ahmed E.A., Benmokrane B., Sansfacon, M., (2017). “Case study: Design, construction, and performance of the la chanceliere parking Garage’s concrete flat slabs reinforced with GFRP bars”, ASCE Journal of Composite for Construction, Vol.21(1), 05016001, 15 p.##[8] Yong, M., J., Min, K., H., Shin, O., H., and Yoon Y., S., (2012). “Effect of steel and synthetic fibers on flexural behavior of highstrength concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars”, Composite Part B, Engineering, Vol.43(3), pp. 10771086.##[9] Adam M.A., Said M., Mahmoud A.A., Shanour A.S., (2015). “Analytical and experimental flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars”, Construction and Building Materials, 84, pp. 354366.##[10] Kassem C, Farghaly AS, Benmokrane B. (2011). “Evaluation of flexural behavior and serviceability performance of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars”, ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction. Vol.15(5), pp. 682695.##[11] Theriault M., Benmokrane B., (1998). “Effects of FRP reinforcement ratio and concrete strength on flexural behaviour of concrete beams”, ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction, 2, pp. 716.##[12] Yoo D.Y., Shin H.O., Kwon K.Y., Yoon Y.S. (2014). “Structural behavior of UHPFRC beams according to reinforcement ratio of internal GFRP bar”, In: ElHaacha R, editor, The 7th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2014), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC).##[13] Issa M.S., Metwally I.M., Elzeiny S.M. (2011). “Influence of fibers on flexural behavior and ductility of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars”, Engineering Structures, 33, pp. 17541763.##[14] Yoo, D.Y., Banthia, N., Yoon, Y.S., (2016). “Predicting service deflection of ultrahighperformance fiber reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars”, Composite Part B, 99.##[15] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2015). “Evaluation of the flexural strength and serviceability of geopolymer concrete beams reinforced with glassfibrereinforced polymer (GFRP) bars”, Engineering Structures, 101, pp. 529541.##[16] Maranan G.B., Manalo A.C., Karunasena W., Benmokrane B., (2015). “Pullout behaviour of GFRP bars with anchor head in geopolymer concrete”, Composite Structures, 132, pp. 11131121.##[17] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Karunasena, K., Benmokrane, B., (2014). “Bond stressslip behavior: case of GFRP bars in geopolymer concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol.27 (1), 04014116.##[18] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2018), “Shear behaviour of geopolymerconcrete beams transversely reinforced with continuous rectangular GFRP composite spirals”, Composite Structures, 187, pp. 454465.##[19] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2017). “Shear Behavior of Geopolymer Concrete Beams Reinforced with Glass FiberReinforced Polymer Bars”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.114 (2).##[20] Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc., (2007). “ABAQUS theory manual”, user manual and example Manual, Version 6.7.##[21] Hognestad E., Hanson N.W.., McHenry D., (1955). Concrete stress distribution in ultimate strength design, ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 53(12), pp. 455479.##[22] CEBFIP, (2013). „fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010“, Ernst & Sohn, A wily Brand.##[23] Lubliner, J., Oliver, J., Oller, S., And Onate, E., (1989). “A PlasticDamage Model for Concrete”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 25(3), pp. 299326.##[24] Dey, Sandip, (2014). “Seismic performance of Composite Plate Shear Walls”, PhD Thesis, Concordia University Montreal, Canada.##[25] Metwally I.M., (2017). “Threedimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete deep beam reinforced with GFRP bars”, HBRC Journal, Vol. 13(1), pp. 2538.##[26] Dhanasekar, M., Haider, W., (2008), “Explicit finite element analysis of lightly reinforced masonry shear walls”, Computers and Structures, Vol. 86, pp. 15–26.##[27] Obaidat Y.T., (2011). “Structural Retrofitting of Concrete Beams Using FRP”, Department of Construction Sciences, Structural Mechanics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.##[28] Rafiei, Shahryar, (2011). “Behaviour of Double Skin Profiled Composite Shear Wall System under Inplane Monotonic”, Cyclic and Impact Loadings, PhD Thesis, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.##]
Investigation of the Distribution of Cumulative Ductility Demand Parameter in Various Stories of Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
2
2
Attributable to the fact that the bucklingrestrained brace core yields both in tension and compression, it can absorb energy and exhibit high ductility rendering it proper in order to tolerate earthquick loads.. One of the vital objectives of seismic standards is providing the appropriate ductility for the structures, because the structures, in case of being ductile, can depreciate a considerable amount of earthquake energy. According to the importance of the issue, the present study makes use of cumulative ductility parameter as a scale that is practically applied to describe the plasticity demand of the buckling restrained brace (BRB) member in order to investigate the cyclic behavior of the braces and buckling restrained braced frames (BRBF). To this end, nonlinear time history analysis was run on three steel buckling restrained braced frames in three different height rates, namely 5story, 10story and 15story, subject to seven earthquake records in OpenSees Software. In consonance to the results of the analysis, hysteretic curves were delineated for the stories and cumulative ductility demand and hysteresis energy parameters were calculated for each obtained curves. The results indicated that the cumulative ductility demand distributions of the stories of the buckling restrained braced frames, designed corresponding to AISC360 guidelines are not identical and that higher ductility demands were scored for the upper stories. The stories with more cumulative ductility demand should be redesigned for larger brace crosssections, although, in terms of strength, the crosssectional area of the bracing does not require to be larger.
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100
113


Narges
Babaei
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
Iran
nargesbabaei31@yahoo.com


Ehsan
Dehghani
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
Iran
dehghani@qom.ac.ir


Alireza
Zarrineghbal
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
alireza.zarrineghbal@gmail.com
Bucking restrained brace
Cumulative ductility demand
Cyclic behavior
Hysteretic energy
[[1] Kalyanaraman, V., Mahadevan, K. and Thairani, V. (1998), “Core loaded earthquake resistant bracing system”, Elsevier Science, Vol. 46, Issue 215, pp. 437439.##[2] Bruneau, M., Uang, C. and Sabelli, R. (2011), “Ductile design of steel structures”, Mc Graw Hill, Toronto.##[3] Mazzolani,F.,Macrae, A. and Charles ,C. (2018). “Buckling restrained brace history, design and application”, Key Engineering Materials , Vol. 736, pp. 5060.##[4] Clark, P. and Aiken, I. (1999), “Design procedures for buildings incorporating hysteretic damping devices”, 68th Annual Convention, Santa Barbara, California.##[5] Bozorgnia, Y. and V.Bertero, V. (2006), “Earthquake engineering”, University of California Berkeley.##[6] Black, C.J., Makris, N. and Aiken, I.D. (2004), “Component testing, seismic evaluation and characterization of bucklingrestrained braces”, Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, pp. 880894.##[7] Guo,Y., Zhu,J., Zhou,P.and Zhu,B. (2017) , “A new shuttleshaped bucklingrestrained brace. Theoretical study on buckling behavior and load resistance”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 147, pp. 223241.##[8] Ravi Kumar, G., Satish Kumar, S.R. and Kalyanaraman, V. (2007), “Behaviour of frames with NonBuckling bracings under earthquake loading”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 63, Issue 2, pp. 254262.##[9] Bosco, M. and Marino, E.M. (2012), “Design method and behavior factor for steel frames with buckling restrained braces”, International Association for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 42, Issue 8, pp.12431263.##[10] Dehghani,M., Tremblay,R. (2017) , “Design and full‐scale experimental evaluation of a seismically endurant steel buckling‐restrained brace system” , Earthquake Engng Struct Dyn , pp. 125.##[11] Robinson, K. and Black, C. (2011), “Getting the most out of buckling restrained braces”, The Steel Conference, Pittsburgh,May.##[12] Andrews, B.M., Fahnestock, L.A. and Song, J. (2008), “Performancebased engineering framework and ductility capacity models for bucklingrestrained braces”, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, NSEL Report Series, Report No. NSEL012.##[13] Zarrineghbal, A. and Ahmadizadeh M. (2015). “Use of asymmetric bucklingrestrained braces in zipper frames for improvement of peak and residual response.” 7th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE7), Tehran.##[14] Erochko, J., Christopoulos, C., Tremblay, R. and Choi, H. (2011) “Residual drift response of SMRFs and BRB frames in steel buildings designed according to ASCE 705,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 589–599.##[15] Craft,J. (2015) “Reducing drifts in buckling restrained braced frames through elastic stories”, Thesis for the degree of Master of Science ,Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Brigham Young University, Provo.##[16] Chowsi,A. (2015) “Fragility assessment of buckling restrained brace frames under near field earthqukes” steel and composite structures , Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 173190.##[17] Jia, M., Guo, L. and Lu, D. (2014), “Performance testing and comparison of bucklingrestrained braces with H and crisscross cross section unrestrained segments”, Journal of Steel Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 745753.##[18] Black, C. & Makris, N. (2002), “Component testing, stability analysis and characterization of bucklingrestrained unbonded braces”, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering University of California, Berkeley.##[19] Sugihardjo, H. and Tavio(2017), Cumulative ductility and hysteretic behavior of small bucklingrestrained braces”, Hindawi, Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2017, Article ID. 7105768.##[20] Standard No. 2800 (2015), Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings", 4th Revision, Building and Housing Research Center, Iran.##[21] Iranian National Building Code, Part 6 (2013), Structural Loadings, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran.##[22] AISC 360 (2010), Seismic provisions of structural steel building, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.##[23] AISC 341 (2010), Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.##[24] Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F. and Scott, M.H. (2006), “OpenSees command language manual”, PEER center.##[25] Robinson, k. (2009), “Specifying bucklingrestrained brace systems”, Modern Steel Construction, November.##]
Selection of Optimal Intensity Measure for Seismic Assessment of Steel Buckling Restrained Braced Frames under NearFault Ground Motions
2
2
Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have a similar behavior under compression and tension loadings. Therefore, they can be applied as a favorable lateral load resisting system for structures. In the performancebased earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework, an intermediate variable called intensity measure (IM) links the seismic hazard analysis with the structural response analyses. An optimal IM has desirable features including efficiency, sufficiency and predictability. In this paper, the efficiency and sufficiency of some traditional, cumulativebased, and advanced scalar IMs to predict maximum interstory drift ratio (MIDR) demand on low to midrise steel structures with BRBs, under nearfault ground motion records having forward directivity, are investigated. The results indicate that most of the IMs contemplated are not sufficient with respect to sourcetosite distance (R), for predicting MIDR. It is also demonstrated that decreasing the strain hardening ratio decreases the efficiency of the IMs. In addition, IMM(λ=0.5) and Saavg are more efficient and also sufficient with respect to pulse period (Tp), for predicting MIDR demand on the lowrise steel BRB frames under nearfault ground motions, when compared with the other IMs. In the case of midrise structures, PGV and IMM(λ=0.33) are selected as optimal IMs. As a result of the higher efficiency and sufficiency of the selected optimal IMs, the obtained fragility curves calculated applying these IMs, are more reliable in comparison with the fragility curves calculated using other IMs.
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114
133


Elham
Javadi
Department of Civil Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
elham.javadi73@gmail.com


Masood
Yakhchalian
Department of Civil Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
m.yakhchalian@qiau.ac.ir
Buckling restrained braced frame
Intensity Measure
Efficiency
Sufficiency
Pulselike nearfault ground motions
[[1] Moehle, J., Deierlein, G. G. (2004). “A framework methodology for performancebased earthquake engineering”, In: Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada.##[2] Baker, J. W. (2005). “Vectorvalued ground motion intensity measures for probabilistic seismic demand analysis”, Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University.##[3] Bradley, B. A., Dhakal, R. P., MacRae G. A., Cubrinovski, M. (2010). “Prediction of Spatially Distributed Seismic Demands in Specific Structures: Ground Motion and Structural Response”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 39, Issue 5, pp. 501–520. doi: 10.1002/eqe.954.##[4] Yakhchalian, M., Nicknam, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2015). “Optimal vectorvalued intensity measure for seismic collapse assessment of structures”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 37–54. doi: 10.1007/s1180301500056.##[5] Kiani, J., Pezeshk, S. (2017). “Sensitivity analysis of the seismic demands of RC moment resisting frames to different aspects of ground motions”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 46, Issue 15, pp. 2739–2755. doi: 10.1002/eqe.2928.##[6] Yakhchalian, M., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2018). “A vector intensity measure to reliably predict maximum drift in low to midrise buildings”, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil EngineersStructures and Buildings, pp. 1–13. doi: 10.1680/jstbu.17.00040.##[7] Tothong, P., Cornell, C. A. (2008). “Structural performance assessment under near‐source pulse‐like ground motions using advanced ground motion intensity measures”, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 1013–1037.##[8] Yakhchalian, M., Nicknam, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2014). “Proposing an optimal integralbased intensity measure for seismic collapse capacity assessment of structures under pulselike nearfault ground motions”, Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 1360–1375.##[9] Kalkan, E., Kunnath, S. K. (2006). “Effects of fling step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings”, Earthquake spectra, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 367–390.##[10] Memarpour, M. M., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Razeghi, H., Akbarzadeh, M., Davoudi, A. T. (2016). “Characteristics of horizontal and vertical nearfield ground motions and investigation of their effects on the dynamic response of bridges”, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 1–24.##[11] Champion, C., Liel, A. (2012). “The effect of nearfault directivity on building seismic collapse risk”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 41, Issue 10, pp. 1391–1409.##[12] Rai, D. C., Goel, S. C. (2003). “Seismic evaluation and upgrading of chevron braced frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, Issue 8, pp. 971–994.##[13] Asgarian, B., Shokrgozar, H. R. (2009). “BRBF response modification factor”, Journal of constructional steel research, Vol. 65, Issue 2, pp. 290298. doi: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.08.002.##[14] Bosco, M., Edoardo, M. M. (2013). “Design method and behavior factor for steel frames with buckling restrained braces”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 42, Issue 8, pp. 1243–1263.##[15] Abdollahzadeh, G., FarziBashir, H., Banihashemi, M. (2014). “Seismic retrofitting of steel frames with buckling restrained and ordinary concentrically bracing systems with various strain hardening and slenderness ratios”, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 20–31. doi: 10.22075/jrce.2014.205.##[16] Hosseinzadeh, S., Mohebi, B., (2016). “Seismic evaluation of allsteel buckling restrained braces using finite element analysis”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 119, pp. 76–84. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2015.12.014.##[17] Jamshidiha, H. R., Yakhchalian, M., Mohebi, B. (2018). “Advanced scalar intensity measures for collapse capacity prediction of steel moment resisting frames with fluid viscous dampers”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 109, pp. 102–118. doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2018.01.009.##[18] Cordova, P. P., Deierlein, G. G., Mehanny, S. S., Cornell, C.A. (2000). “Development of a twoparameter seismic intensity measure and probabilistic assessment procedure”, In the second USJapan workshop on performancebased earthquake engineering methodology for reinforced concrete building structures, pp. 187–206.##[19] Mehanny, S. S. (2009). “A broadrange powerlaw form scalarbased seismic intensity measure”, Engineering Structures,Vol. 31, Issue 7, pp. 1354–68. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.07.009.##[20] Bojórquez, E., Iervolino, I. (2011). “Spectral shape proxies and nonlinear structural response”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 31, Issue 7, pp. 996–1008. doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.03.006.##[21] Eads, L., Miranda, E., Lignos, D. G. (2015). “Average spectral acceleration as an intensity measure for collapse risk assessment”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 44, Issue 12, pp. 2057–73. doi: 10.1002/eqe.2575.##[22] Bojórquez, E., Chávez, R., ReyesSalazar, A., Ruiz, S. E., Bojórquez, J. (2017). “A new ground motion intensity measure IB”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 99, pp. 97–107. doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.011.##[23] Tothong, P., Luco, N. (2007). “Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 36, Issue 13, pp. 1837–1860.##[24] Yakhchalian, M., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Nicknam, A. (2014). “A new proxy for ground motion selection in seismic collapse assessment of tall buildings”, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 23, Issue 17, pp. 1275–1293. doi: 10.1002/tal.1143.##[25] Yakhchalian, M., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Eghbali, M. (2017). “Reliable seismic collapse assessment of shortperiod structures using new proxies for ground motion record selection”, Scientia Iranica, Vol. 24, Issue 5, pp. 2283–2293. doi: 10.24200/sci.2017.4162.##[26] Koopaee, M. E., Dhakal, R. P., MacRae, G. (2017). “Effect of ground motion selection methods on seismic collapse fragility of RC frame buildings”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 46, Issue 11, pp. 1875–1892. doi: 10.1002/eqe.2891.##[27] Arias, A. (1970). “A measure of earthquake intensity”, In Seismic design for nuclear power plants, R. J. Hansen (ed.), The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 438–483.##[28] Benjamin, J. R. (1988). “A criterion for determining exceedances of the operating basis earthquake”, EPRI Report NP5930, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.##[29] ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers). (2010). ASCE 710 Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, ASCE, Reston, VA, USA.##[30] AISC Committee. (2010). Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 36010), American Institute of Steel Construction, ChicagoIllinois.##[31] AISC Committee. (2010). Seismic provisions for structural steel buildings (AISC 34110), American Institute of Steel Construction, ChicagoIllinois.##[32] Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees). (2013). Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, http://opensees.berkeley.edu.##[33] Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F. H., Scott, M. L., Fenves, G. (2006). OpenSees command language manual.##[34] Guerrero, H., Ji, T., TeranGilmore, A., Escobar, J. A. (2016). “A method for preliminary seismic design and assessment of lowrise structures protected with BucklingRestrained Braces”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 123, pp.141–154. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.05.015.##[35] Mahdavipour, M. A., Deylami, A. (2014). “Probabilistic assessment of strain hardening ratio effect on residual deformation demands of BucklingRestrained Braced Frames”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 81, pp. 302–308. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.004.##[36] Uriz, P. (2008). “Toward earthquakeresistant design of concentrically braced steelframe structures”, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.##[37] Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). (2013). PEER Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) Database. https://ngawest2.berkeley.edu##[38] Benjamin, J. R., Cornell, C. A. (1970). “Probability, statistic, and decision for civil engineers”, New York: McGrawHill.##[39] Haselton, C. B., Deierlein, G. G. (2008). “Assessing Seismic Collapse Safety of Modern Reinforced Concrete Momentframe Buildings”, PEER Report 2007/08, Pacific Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA.##[40] ANG HS, A., TANG, H. W. (1975). “Probability concepts in engineering planning and design”, Vol. 1, Basic Principles.##[41] Baker, J. W., Cornell, C. A. (2008). “Vectorvalued intensity measures for pulselike nearfault ground motions”, Engineering Structures,Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 1048–57. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.07.009.##[42] Maleki, M., Ahmady Jazany, R., Ghobadi, M. S., (2018). “Probabilistic Seismic Assessment of SMFs with Drilled Flange Connections Subjected to NearField Ground Motions”, International Journal of Steel Structures, pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1007/s1329601801120.##[43] Yahyaabadi, A. Tehranizadeh, M. (2011). “New scalar intensity measure for nearfault ground motions based on the optimal combination of spectral responses”, Scientia Iranica, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 1149–1158. doi: 10.1016/j.scient.2011.09.013.##[44] Yahyazadeh, A., Yakhchalian, M. (2018). “Probabilistic residual drift assessment of SMRFs with linear and nonlinear viscous dampers”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 148, pp. 409–421. doi: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.05.031##]
Compressive Strength Prediction Using the ANN Method for FRP Confined Rectangular Concrete Columns
2
2
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) was extensively employed as external confinement to strengthen the RC structures. Substantial studies were carried out in order to assess a more exact formula for measuring the strength enhancement of such strengthens concrete columns. A database from several experimental tests was gathered. A comparison between the experimental values and existing formulae called an urgent need for a more exact formula. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop an exact formula based artificial neural networks (ANNs), and to present the strength enhancement. The ANNbased method was simulated in consonance with the collected database and an exact formula generated. The proposed formula was compared to current formulae employing the gathered database. The results revealed that the new formula based ANN gives the best accuracy than others. A sensitivity analysis based on Garson’s algorithm was generated for indicating the value of each applied variable.
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134
153


Yasser
Sharifi
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, ValieAsr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
Iran
yasser_sharifi@yahoo.com


Forogh
Lotfi
Master of Structures, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Higher Education Allameh Jafari Rafsanjan, Iran
Iran
forogh.lotfi@chmail.ir


Adel
Moghbeli
Master of Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, ValieAsr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
Iran
adel.moghbeli8@gmail.com
ANN
Compressive Strength
FRP confined rectangular concrete columns
Garson’s algorithm
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(2010) “Analytical model for circular normal and highstrength concrete columns confined with FRP.” Journal of Compos Constr., Vol. 115, pp. 562–572. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.19435614.0000115:562–572.##[7] Lee, C.S., Hegemier, G.A., Phillippi, D.J. (2010) “Analytical model for fiberreinforced polymerjacketed square concrete columns in axial compression.” Journal of ACI. Struct, Vol. 107, Issue 2.##[8] Wu, Y.F., Zhou, Y.W., (2010) “Unified strength model based on HoekBrown failure criterion for circular and square concrete columns confined by FRP”. Journal of Compos Constr., pp. 175–184. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.19435614 .0000062.##[9] Yazici, V., Hadi, M.N.S. (2012) “Normalized confinement stiffness approach for modeling FRPconfined concrete.” Journal of Compos Constr., pp. 520–528. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CC.19435614.0000283.##[10] Richart, F.E., Brandtzaeg, A., Brown, R.L. (1928) “A study of the failure of concrete under combined compressive stress.” Bulletin 1985, Univ. of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station, Champaign, IL.##[11] Lam, L., Teng, J.G. (2003) “Designoriented stressstrain model for FRPconfined concrete in rectangular columns”. Journal of Reinf. Plast. Compos, Vol. 22, Issue 13, pp. 1149–1186.##[12] Toutanji, H., Han, M., Gilbert, J., Matthys, S. (2010) “Behavior of largescale rectangular columns confined with FRP composites.” Journal of Compos Constr., pp. 62–71. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.19435614.0000051.##[13] Wu, Y.F, Wei, Y.Y. (2010) “Effect of crosssectional aspect ratio on the strength of CFRPconfined rectangular concrete columns.” Eng. Struct., Vol. 32, Issue 1, pp. 32–45.##[14] Naderpour, H., & Alavi, S. A. (2017). A proposed model to estimate shear contribution of FRP in strengthened RC beams in terms of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System. Composite Structures, 170, 215227.##[15] Ilkhani, M., Moradi, E., Lavasani, M. Calculation of Torsion Capacity of the Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Artificial Neural Network. Soft Computing in Civil Engineering, 2017; 1(2): 818. doi: 10.22115/scce.2017.48685##[16] Hosseini, G. Capacity Prediction of RC Beams Strengthened with FRP by Artificial Neural Networks Based on Genetic Algorithm. Soft Computing in Civil Engineering, 2017; 1(1): 9398. doi: 10.22115/scce.2017.48392##[17] Behfarnia, K., & Khademi, F. (2017). A comprehensive study on the concrete compressive strength estimation using artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system. Iran University of Science & Technology, 7(1), 7180.##[18] Khademi, F., & Jamal, S. M. (2016). Predicting the 28 days compressive strength of concrete using artificial neural network. iManager's Journal on Civil Engineering, 6(2), 1.##[19] Heidari, H., Tavakoli, D. and Fakharian, P. (2014). “Approximate eigenvalue of plate by artificial neural networks.” Journal of Modeling in Engineering, Vol. 11, Issue 35, pp. 4962.##[20] Naderpour, H., Fakharian, P., Rafiean, A. H. and Yourtchi, E. (2017). “Estimation of the Shear Strength Capacity of Masonry Walls Improved with Fiber Reinforced Mortars (FRM) Using ANNGMDH Approach.” Journal of Concrete Structure and Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 4759.##[21] Naderpour, H., Noormohammadi, E., Fakharian, P. (2017). “Prediction of Punching Shear Capacity of RC Slabs using Support Vector Machine.” Concrete Research, Vol. 10, Issue 2, pp. 95107.##[22] Naderpour, H., Fakharian, P. (2017). “Predicting the Torsional Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Sheets in terms of Artificial Neural Networks.” Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, Vol. 2017, . doi: 10.22065/jsce.2017.70668.1023##[23] Hosseini Vaez, S. R., Naderpour, H. and Barati, M. (1396). “The prediction of the flexural strength of NSMFRP reinforced beams using artificial neural networks.” Structural Engineering and Construction, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 1628.##[24] Tohidi, S. and Sharifi Y. (2015). “Empirical modeling of distortional buckling strength of halfthrough bridge girders via stepwise regression method.” Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 13831397.##[25] Tohidi, S. and Sharifi, Y. (2016). “Neural networks for inelastic distortional buckling capacity assessment of steel Ibeams.” ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 94, Issue 9, pp. 359371.##[26] Tohidi, S. and Sharifi, Y. (2014). “Inelastic lateraltorsional buckling capacity of corroded web opening steel beams using artificial neural networks.” The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, Vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 2440.##[27] Sharifi, Y. and Tohidi, S. (2014). “Lateraltorsional buckling capacity assessment of web opening steel girders by artificial neural networks–elastic investigation.” Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, issue 2, pp. 167–177.##[28] Sharifi Y, Tohidi S. (2014). “Ultimate capacity assessment of web plate beams with pitting corrosion subjected to patch loading by artificial neural networks.” Advanced Steel Construction, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 325350.##[29] Tohidi, S. and Sharifi, Y. (2014). “A new predictive model for restrained distortional buckling strength of halfthrough bridge girders using artificial neural network.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 325–350.##[30] Tohidi, S. and Sharifi, Y. (2014). “Loadcarrying capacity of locally corroded steel plate girder ends using artificial neural network.” ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 100, issue 1, pp. 48–61.##[31] Hosseinpour, M. Sharifi, H. and Sharifi Y. 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(2006) “Stressstrain model for fiberreinforced polymer jacketed concrete columns.” Journal of ACI Struct. Vol. 103, Issue 5, pp. 672–682.##[41] Rousakis, T.C., Karabinis, A.I., Kiousis, P.D. (2007) “FRPconfined concrete members: Axial compression experiments and plasticity modelling.” Eng. Struct, Vol. 29, Issue 7, pp. 1343–1353.##[42] Masia, M.J., Gale, T.N., Shrive, N.G. (2004) “Size effects in axially loaded squaresection concrete prisms strengthened using carbon fibre reinforced polymer wrapping. Can. J. Civ. Eng., Vol. 31, Issue 1, pp. 1–13.##[43] Wang, L.M., Wu, Y.F. (2008) “Effect of corner radius on the performance of CFRPconfined square concrete columns: Test.” Journal of Eng. Struct., Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 493–505.##[44] Wu, Y.F., Wei, Y.Y. (2010) “Effect of crosssectional aspect ratio on the strength of CFRPconfined rectangular concrete columns.” Journal of Eng. Struct., Vol. 32, Issue 1, pp. 32–45.##[45] Wang, Z.Y., Wang, D.Y., Smith, S.T., Lu, D.G. (2012) “CFRP confined square RC columns. I: Experimental investigation.” Journal of Compos. Constr., pp. 150–160. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CC.19435614.0000245:150–160.##[46] Ilki, A., Kumbasar, N. (2003) “Compressive behaviour of carbon fibre composite jacketed concrete with circular and noncircular crosssections.” Journal of Earthq. Eng., Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 381–406.##[47] Tao, Z., Yu, Q., Zhong, Y.Z. (2008) “Compressive behaviour of CFRPconfined rectangular concrete columns Mag.” Concrete Res., Vol. 60, Issue 10, pp. 735–745.##[48] Cybenko, J. (1989) “Approximations by super positions of a sigmoidal function.” Math Control Signal Syst, pp. 303–314.##[49] Marquardt, D. (1963) “An algorithm for least squares estimation of nonlinear parameters.” Journal of Soc. Ind. Appl. Math, Vol. 11, pp. 431–441.##[50] Hagan, M.T., Menhaj, M.B. (1994) “Training feed forward networks with the Marquardt algorithm.” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol. 5, Issue 6, pp. 861867.##[51] Hristev, R.M. (1998) “The ANN book.” GNU public license.##[52] Gandomi, A.H, Tabatabaei, S.M., Moradian, M.H, Radfar, A., Alavi, A.H. (2011) “A New Prediction Model for the Load Capacity of Castellated Steel Beams.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, pp. 1096–1105.##[53] Frank, I.E., Todeschini, R. (1994) “the data analysis handbook.” Amsterdam: Elsevier.##[54] Gandomi, A.H., Mohammadzadeh S., Juan Luis PérezOrdó˜nezc, Alavi, A.H. (2014) “Linear genetic programming for shear strength prediction of reinforced concrete beams without stirrups.” Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 19, pp. 112–120.##[55] Alavi, A.H., Ameri M., Gandomi, A.H., Mirzahosseini, M.R. (2011) “Formulation of flow number of asphalt mixes using a hybrid computational method.” Constr. Build. Mater. Vol. 25, pp. 1338–1355.##[56] Garson, G.D. (1991) “Interpreting neuralnetwork connection weights.” AI Expert, Vol. 6, pp. 47–51.##]
Effect of Type and Distribution of Shear Studs on the Behavior of Composite SteelConcrete Shear Walls
2
2
In this research the inplane shear behavior of composite steelconcrete shear walls was investigated by taking into account the following variables: steel plate thickness, the spacing between shear studs, the shape and type of the shear studs and consideration of the minimum reinforcement in the wall section. Several finite element models were analyzed and numerical results of two models were verified with available experimental results in the literature. Results revealed that increasing the thickness of the steel plate increases the yield and ultimate shear strengths; moreover, increasing the spacing between shear studs reduces the shear resistance to some extent; furthermore, steelplate composite (SC) walls with iron angles have higher yield and ultimate shear resistance than walls with studs; finally, the wall with the minimum reinforcement behaved better than the wall with no reinforcement in terms of ductility and shear strength.
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154
167


Masood
Farzam
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
mafarzam@tabrizu.ac.ir


Fateme
Hoseinzade
Faculty of civil engineering, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
Iran
fateme_hoseinzade@yahoo.com
SC Shear Wall
Shear Stud
ductility
Yield Strength Shear Strength
[[1] Shen, J., Seker, O., Akbas, B., Seker, P., Momenzadeh, S., & Faytarouni, M., 2017. Seismic performance of concentrically braced frames with and without brace buckling. Engineering Structures, 141, 461481.##[2] Momenzadeh, S., Seker, O., Faytarouni, M., & Shen, J., 2017. Seismic performance of allsteel bucklingcontrolled braces with various crosssections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 139, 4461.##[3] Momenzadeh, S., Kazemi, M. T., & Asl, M. H., 2017. Seismic performance of reduced web section moment connections. International Journal of Steel Structures, 17(2), 413425.##[4] Bazzaz, M., Kafi, M. A., Kheyroddin, A., Andalib, Z., & Esmaeili, H., 2014. Evaluating the seismic performance of offcentre bracing system with circular element in optimum place. International Journal of Steel Structures, 14(2), 293304.##[5] Usami, S., Akiyama, H., Narikawa, M., Hara, K., Takeuchi, M.,Sasaki, N., 1995, Study on a concrete filled steel structure for nuclear power plants (part 2). Compressive loading tests on wall members, SMIRT 13, Porto Alegre , Brazil,August,pp.2126.##[6]Takeda,T.,Ymaguchi,T.,Nakamaya,T.,Akiyama,k.,Kato, Y.,1995, Experimental study on shear characteristics of a concrete filled steel plate wall, SMIRT 13, Porto Alegre , Brazil,August 1995, pp.314.##[7] Ozaki, M., Akita, S., Osuga, H., Nakayama, T., Adachi, N, 2004. Study on Steel Plate Reinforced Concrete Panels Subjected to Cyclic inPlane Shear, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 228, pp. 225244.##[8] Sasaki, N., Akiyama, H., Narikawa, M., Hara, K., Takeuchi, M., Usami, S., 1995, Study on a concrete filled steel structure for nuclear power plants (part 3). Shear and bending loading tests on wall members, SMiRT13, Porto Alegre , Brazil,August,pp.2732.##[9] Emori, K., 2002, Compressive and shear strength of concrete filled steel box wall, Steel structures 2, 2940.##[10] Amit H. Varma .et al.2011.In plane shear behavior of SC composite walls: Theory vs. Experiment. Transactions, SMIRT 21, 611 November, New Delhi, India##[11] Amit H. Varma .et al.2011.Out of plane shear behavior of SC composite structures. Transactions, SMiRT 21, 611 November, New Delhi, India.##[12] Takeachi, M. et al. 1995 Study on a concrete filled steel structure for nuclear power plants,SMiRT13, Porto Alegre , Brazil,August,pp.1520.##[13] ATENA, Finite element software, Cervenka Consulting, Prague, Czech Republic, 2016.##]
Effect of Degradation on Collapse Margin Ratio of Steel Moment Frames
2
2
Although several studies have investigated the effect of degradation on the behavior of structures, inspections on collapse margin ratios are rare in the literature. In this study, the effect of strength and stiffness degradation on collapse capacity of steel moment frames is inquired. The aim is to determine margin of safety against collapse applying a probabilistic approach. To this end, 14 moment frames are designed including 4 long period and 3 short period models with 5 and 8m bay length. These buildings are representative of common office and residential buildings built in cities. Also, they are designed in consonance with ASCE705 specifications. In the first stage, effective seismic parameters are calculated using a pushover analysis. In the second stage, collapse performance levels are determined using incremental dynamic analysis by considering seismic excitation uncertainties. Results reveal that the overstrength factor that is recommended by ASCE code is not always conservative. Overall, structures designed with common building codes show acceptable margin of safety against collapse.
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168
179


Saeid
Bazvand
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University Shahre Kord branch, Shahre Kord, Iran
Iran
saeid_bazvand@yahoo.com


Ehsan
Darvishan
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
Iran
darvishan@riau.ac.ir


Gholamreza
Ghodrati Amiri
School of Civil Engineering
Iran University of Science & Technology
Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir
degrading behavior
collapse capacity
strength degradation
FEMAP695
steel moment frame
[[1] Lignos, D., Krawinkler, H., (2012). ”Sidesway collapse of deterioration structural systems under seismic excitations” The John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University.##[2] Jennings, P.C., Husid, R., (1968). “Collapse of yielding structures during earthquakes,” Journal ofEngineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 94, Issue 5, pp 10451065.##[3] Takizawa, H., Jennings, P., (1980) “Collapse of a model for ductile reinforced concrete frames under extreme earthquake motions,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp: 117144.##[4] Bernal, D., (1987). “Amplification factors for inelastic dynamic PDelta effects in earthquake analysis,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp: 635651.##[5] Bernal, D., (1992). “Instability of buildings subjected to earthquakes,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 118, Issue 8, pp: 22392260.##[6] Bernal, D., (1998). “Instability of buildings during seismic response,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, Issue 46, pp: 496502.##[7] Rahnama, M. Krawinkler, H., (1993). “Effect of soft soils and hysteresis models on seismic design spectra,” John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. 108, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University.##[8] Miranda, E., Akkar, D., (2003). “Dynamic instability of simple structural systems.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 129, Issue 12, pp: 1722–1726.##[9] Song, J., Pincheira, J., (2000). “Spectral displacement demands of stiffness and strength degrading systems,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp: 817851, 2000.##[10] Ibarra, L.F., Medina, R.A., Krawinkler, H., (2002). “Collapse assessment of deteriorating SDOF systems,” Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, London, UK, Paper 665, Elsevier Science Ltd., September 913.##[11] Ibarra L.F., Medina R.A., Krawinkler H., (2005). “Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 34, Issue 12, pp: 14891511.##[12] Ibarra, L.F., Krawinkler, H., (2005). “Global collapse of frame structures under seismic excitations,” Report No. PEER 2005/06, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, 2005.##[13] FEMAP695, (2009). “Quantification of building seismic performance factors,” prepared by the Applied Technology Council (ATC) for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC.##[14] ASCE/SEI7–05, (2005), “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures”, American Society of Civil Engineers.##[15] BHRC, (2005), “Iranian code of practice for seismic resistance design of buildings: Standard no. 2800”. 3rd ed. Building and Housing Research Center.##[16] McKenna F, Feneves GL. (2009), “Open system for earthquake engineering simulation (OpenSEES)”, Version 2.1.0, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.##[17] Vamvasikos, D. and Cornell C.A., (2002). “Aplied Incremental Dynamic Analysis”, 12th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, London.##[18] Federal Emergency Management Agency; (2000). “Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings”, FEMA356, Washington, D.C.##[17] Ibarra L.F., Medina R.A., Krawinkler H., (2005), “Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 34, Issue 12, pp: 14891511.##[18] Lignos, D.G., Krawinkler, H., (2011), “Deterioration modeling of steel components in support of collapse prediction of steel moment frames under earthquake loading”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 137, Issue 11, pp: 12911302.##[19] Steneker P. and Wiebe L., (2016), “Evaluation of THE contribution of panel zones to the global performance of moment resisting frames under seismic load”, in proc. Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, London, 2016.##[20] Gupta, A., Krawinkler, H., (1999), “Prediction of seismic demands for SMRFs with ductileconnections and elements,” SAC Background Document, Report No. SAC/BD99/06, SAC Joint Venture, Sacramento, CA.##[21] Vamvatsikos D, Cornell CA., (2002). “Incremental dynamic analysis”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics; Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp: 491514.##]
Performance Based Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures with Different Types of Shear Walls
2
2
Seismic rehabilitation provides existing buildings with more resistance to seismic activity, ground motion, or geotechnical failure as a result of earthquakes. Performancebased rehabilitation is a general concept through which the retrofitting criteria are defined regarding to performance objectives when the structural and nonstructural members are subject to different levels of earthquake hazards. In this study, several moment resistant steel frames with different numbers of stories were initially designed as vulnerable models. These models were retrofitted in consonance with the current seismic rehabilitation standards and codes criteria. Three models of shear walls were applied to retrofitting the vulnerable structures. In the first model, the wall surrounds column perimeter as boundary elements. In the second model, wall is connected to the column and in the 3rd model, wall is placed with a small gap from the column, and there is no contact between them. The nonlinear behavior of buildings is evaluated applying adaptive modal pushover and incremental dynamic analysis before and after rehabilitation.
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180
193


Ali
Khodadadi
Faculty of Civil and Surveying Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Iran
khodadadi.ali@gmail.com


Abbas
SivandiPour
Faculty of Civil and Surveying Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Iran
sivandi@outlook.com


Seyed Hesam
Madani
Faculty of Civil and Surveying Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Iran
h.madani@kgut.ac.ir
Seismic Rehabilitation
MRF
Concrete Shear Wall
Adaptive Modal Pushover Analysis
IDA
Fragility Curves
[[1] Judd, J. P., Charney, F. A. (2016). Seismic collapse prevention system for steelframe buildings. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 118, 6075.##[2] Kim, J., Lee, J., Kang, H. (2016). Seismic retrofit of special truss moment frames using viscous dampers, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 123, 5367.##[3] Qu, B., SanchezZamora, F., Pollino, M., & Hou, H. (2017). Rehabilitation of steel concentrically braced frames with rocking cores for improved performance under nearfault ground motions. Advances in Structural Engineering, 20(6), 940952.##[4] Morelli, F., Piscini, A., & Salvatore, W. (2017). Seismic behavior of an industrial steel structure retrofitted with selfcentering hysteretic dampers. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 139, 157175.##[5] SivandiPour, A., Gerami, M., Kheyroddin, A. (2015). Determination of modal damping ratios for nonclassically damped rehabilitated steel structures, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, 39(C1), 81.##[6] FEMA 356, (2000). Federal Emergency Management Agency, Prestandard and Commentary for the Rehabilitation of Buildings.##[7] SivandiPour, A., Gerami, M., Khodayarnezhad, D., (2014). Equivalent modal damping ratios for nonclassically damped hybrid steel concrete buildings with transitional storey. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 50(3), pp.383401.##[8] Gerami, M., SivandiPour, A. (2014). Performance based seismic rehabilitation of existing steel eccentric braced buildings in near fault ground motions. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23(12), 881896.##[9] Di Sarno, L., Elnashai, A. S. (2009). Bracing systems for seismic retrofitting of steel frames. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(2), 452465.##[10] Kurata, M., Leon, R. T., DesRoches, R., Nakashima, M. (2012). Steel plate shear wall with tensionbracing for seismic rehabilitation of steel frames. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 71, 92103.##[11] Shakib, H., Joghan, S. D., Pirizadeh, M., Musavi, A. M. (2011). Seismic rehabilitation of semirigid steel framed buildings—A case study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(6), 10421049.##[12] Jiang, L., Zheng, H., Hu, Y. (2017). Experimental seismic performance of steeland composite steelpanel wall strengthened steel frames. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 17(3), 520534.##[13] Mirza, O., Shill, S. K., Mashiri, F., Schroot, D. (2017). Behaviour of retrofitted steel structures using cost effective retrofitting techniques. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 131, 3850.##[14] TahamouliRoudsari, M., Entezari, A., Hadidi, M., & Gandomian, O. (2017). Experimental assessment of retrofitted RC frames with different steel braces, Structures 11, 206217##[15] SeismoSoft, Inc., SeismoStruct – Computer Program for Static and Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Framed Structures, Downloadable software with registration from URL: http://www.seismosoft.com, 2012.##[16] AISC, (2010). American Institute of Steel Construction. Steel construction manual, 14th ed. Third Printing. Chicago, IL.##[17] ASCE 710, (2010). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.##[18] FEMA440. (2005). Improvement of nonlinear static Seismic analysis procedures. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, DC, USA.##[19] The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), https://ngawest2.berkeley.edu##[20] FEMA P695, (2009). Quantification of building seismic performance factors. Washington DC, USA: Federal Emergency Management Agency.##[21] Ji, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., & Okazaki, T. (2017). Seismic behavior and fragility curves of replaceable steel coupling beams with slabs. Engineering Structures, 150, 622635.##]