2020
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162
Torsion Effect on the RC Structures using Fragility Curves Considering with SoilStructure Interaction
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2
The existence of torsion, as well as consideration of the SoilStructure Interaction (SSI), increase the natural periods of the structure resulting from a subsequent decrease in the seismic demand of the system. This paper summarizes the probabilistic assessment for evaluation of collapse fragility curves in concrete moment resisting structure with different mass center eccentricities. A 12story, 3D, moment resisting concrete structure with fixedbase and considering SSI, both types of one and twoway eccentricities is employed to estimate the collapse fragility curve by the IMbased approach. According to the obtained results, increasing the torsion due to shifting the mass centers decreases the median of the collapse fragility curve. In addition, it was observed that the SSI consideration for soil type D with shear wave velocity of 180m/s to 360m/s leads to reduction of the median of collapse capacity by in the presence of torsion effect due to one and twoway mass center eccentricities in range of 020% of the building's plan dimensions respectively. In other words, the fixedbase assumption overestimates the median of collapse capacity and leads to unsafe design. Moreover, shifting the mass centers of all the stories up to 20% of the building's plan dimensions, with or without the consideration of the SSI, decreases the median of collapse capacities and increases the seismic vulnerability of the building. Accordingly, the fixedbase assumption can be underestimated the dispersion range of the collapse fragility curve. The result shows that the mentioned differences cannot be neglected.
1

1
21


Ali
Anvarsamarin
Department of civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
alianvarsamarin@gmail.com


Fayaz
Rahimzadeh Rofooei
Civil Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
f.r.rofoei@gmail.com


Masoud
Nekooei
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
nekooei@srbiau.ac.ir
Collapse Fragility Curve
Incremental Dynamic Analysis
Intensity Measure
Mass Center Eccentricity
soilstructure interaction
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G., Hikino, T., Matsuoka, Y., Nakashima, M. (2012). “Collapse assessment of steel moment frames based on EDefense fullscale shake table collapse tests.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 139(1), pp. 120132.##[11] Palermo, M., Hernandez, R. R., Mazzoni, S., Trombetti, T. (2014). “On the seismic behavior of a reinforced concrete building with masonry infills collapsed during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.” Earthquake and Structures, Vol. 6(1), pp. 4569.##[12] Bolisetti, C. (2014). “Site response, soilstructure interaction and structuresoilstructure interaction for performance assessment of buildings and nuclear structures.” (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo).##[13] ATC306 (1978). “Amended tentative provisions for the development of seismic regulations for buildings.” ATC publications ATC 306, NBS Special Publication 510, NSF Publication 788, Applied Technology Council. US Government Printing Office: Washington DC.##[14] NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture. (2012). SoilStructure Interaction for Building Structures. NIST GCR. http://doi.org/1291721##[15] NIST GCR 1291721 (2012). “SoilStructure Interaction for Building Structures”. U.S. Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology Engineering Laboratory Gaithersburg, MD 20899, September 2012.##[16] Renzi, S., Madiai, C., Vannucchi, G. (2013). “A simplified empirical method for assessing seismic soilstructure interaction effects on ordinary sheartype buildings.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 55, pp. 100107.##[17] Saouma, V., Miura, F., Lebon, G., Yagome, Y. (2011). “A simplified 3D model for soilstructure interaction with radiation damping and free field input.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 9(5), pp. 1387.##[18] Rayhani, M. T., El Naggar, M. H. (2012). “Physical and numerical modeling of seismic soilstructure interaction in layered soils.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 30(2), pp. 331342.##[19] Pecker, A., Paolucci, R., Chatzigogos, C., Correia, A. A., & Figini, R. (2014). “The role of nonlinear dynamic soilfoundation interaction on the seismic response of structures.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 12(3), pp. 11571176.##[20] Sáez, E., LopezCaballero, F., ModaressiFarahmandRazavi, A. (2013). “Inelastic dynamic soil–structure interaction effects on momentresisting frame buildings.” Engineering structures, Vol. 51, pp. 166177.##[21] Figini, R., Paolucci, R. (2017). “Integrated foundation–structure seismic assessment through non‐linear dynamic analyses.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 46(3), pp. 349367.##[22] Raychowdhury, P. (2011). “Seismic response of lowrise steel momentresisting frame (SMRF) buildings incorporating nonlinear soil–structure interaction (SSI).” Engineering Structures, 33(3), 958967.##[23] Khoshnoudian, F., Ahmadi, E., Kiani, M., Tehrani, M. H. (2015). “Dynamic instability of SoilSDOF structure systems under farfault earthquakes.” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 31(4), pp. 24192441.##[24] Ghandil, M., & Behnamfar, F. (2015). “The nearfield method for dynamic analysis of structures on soft soils including inelastic soil–structure interaction.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 75, pp. 117.##[25] Ghandil, M., Behnamfar, F., Vafaeian, M. (2016). “Dynamic responses of structure–soil–structure systems with an extension of the equivalent linear soil modeling.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 80, pp. 149162.##[26] Anvarsamarin, A., Rofooei, F. R., Nekooei, M. (2018). “SoilStructure Interaction Effect on Fragility Curve of 3D Models of Concrete MomentResisting Buildings.” Shock and Vibration, Vol. 2018.##[27] Shakib, H., Homaei, F. (2017). “Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of the soilstructure interaction effect on seismic response of midrise setback steel buildings.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 15(7), pp. 28272851.##[28] Behnamfar, F., Banizadeh, M. (2016). “Effects of soil–structure interaction on distribution of seismic vulnerability in RC structures.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 80, pp. 7386.##[29] Ghandil M., Behnamfar F. (2017). “Ductility demands of MRF structures on soft soils considering soilstructure interaction”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering Vol. 92, pp. 203–214.##[30] Karapetrou, S. T., Fotopoulou, S. D., Pitilakis, K. D. (2015). “Seismic vulnerability assessment of highrise nonductile RC buildings considering soil–structure interaction effects.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 73, pp. 4257.##[31] Pitilakis, K., Crowley, H., Kaynia, A. M. (2014). “SYNERG: typology definition and fragility functions for physical elements at seismic risk.” Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Vol, 27.##[32] ACI Committee, American Concrete Institute, International Organization for Standardization. (2008). “Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 31808) and commentary”. American Concrete Institute.##[33] ASCE 710. (2010). “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.” American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USA.##[34] ETABS, Structural Analysis Program, Computers and Structures Inc. (2013). Berkeley, CA, USA.##[35] OpenSees (2011). “Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation.” University of Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.##http://opensees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page.##[36] Terzic, V. (2011). “Forcebased element vs. Displacementbased element.” University of Berkeley, OpenSees, NEES, & NEEScomm.##[37] Spacone, E., Filippou, F. C., Taucer, F. F. (1996). “Fibre beam–column model for non‐linear analysis of R/C frames: Part I. Formulation.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 711725.##[38] Spacone, E., Filippou, F. C., Taucer, F. F. (1996). “Fibre beam–column model for non‐linear analysis of R/C frames: part II. Applications.” Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, Vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 727742.##[39] Mander J B., Priestley M J N., Park R. (1988). “Observed stressstrain behavior of confined concrete.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 1827–1849.##[40] KSURC. (2007). “KSURC: MomentCurvature, Force and Interaction Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Member, V 1.0.11, Inc.” Kansas State University, Kansas, USA.##[41] Wolf, J. P. (1995). “Cone models as a strengthofmaterials approach to foundation vibration.” In Proceedings 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering (No. LCHCONF1995004, pp. 583592).##[42] Schnabel, P.B., Lysmer, J., Seed, H.B. (1972). “SHAKE: A Computer Program for Earthquake Response Analysis of Horizontally Layered Sites,” Report, UCB/EERC72/12, Univ. of California at Berkeley.##[43] EduPro Civil System, Inc. (1998). ProShake Users Manual – Ground Response Analysis Program, EduPro Civil System, Inc., Redmond, Washington.##[44] ASCE/SEI Seismic Rehabilitation Standards Committee. (2007). “Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings (ASCE/SEI 4106).” American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.##[45] Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), PEER Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) Database. (2013). https:// ngawest2.berkeley.edu.##[46] Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2005). “Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures.” FEMA 440, prepared by Applied Technology Council (ATC55 Project).##[47] Shome, N. (1999). “Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures.” Stanford University.##[48] Ibarra, L. F., Krawinkler, H. (2005). “Global collapse of frame structures under seismic excitations.” Berkeley, CA: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, pp. 2951.##[49] Zareian, F., Krawinkler, H., Ibarra, L., Lignos, D. (2010). “Basic concepts and performance measures in prediction of collapse of buildings under earthquake ground motions.” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 19(1‐2), pp. 167181.##]
Seismic Behavior of SemiDry Precast Concrete Connections Using Tapered Thread Couplers
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2
The worldwide use of precast concrete frames leads to an increase in the need for the investigation of efficient precast connections, particularly in the seismic regions. The current paper provides a numerical and experimental study on a dry precast connection. Experiments were conducted to validate the finite element method in the laboratory of the University of Science and Culture. To verify the validity of the result, the outcomes of the nonlinear analysis of crossshaped models were compared with the experimental results in terms of failure mode, ductility, lateral loadbearing capacity, and energy dissipation. The finite element nonlinear analyses of the models represented an acceptable compatibility with experimental results. A parametric study has been carried out to survey the effect of the couplers and grout compressive strength on semidry connection behavior. Eventually, the response modification factors were determined for the case studies to demonstrate the seismic behavior in design forces. Statistical analysis of the numerical results demonstrates a 6 % increase for response modification factors of the specimens with the closest distance of couples to the column face in relation to those with the couplers farthest away from the column face. Eventually, it can be concluded that the specimens with a shorter coupler distance from the external face of the column and with a higher grout compressive strength lead to the appropriate results.
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39


Ehsan
Mobedi
University of Science and Culture
Iran
emobedi@usc.ac.ir


Hossein
Parastesh
University of Science & Culture
Iran
parastesh@usc.ac.ir


Alireza
Khaloo
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
khaloo@sharif.ac.ir
Dry Connection
couplers array
precast
grout type
seismic behavior
[[1] Park, R., & Thompson, K. J. (1977). Cyclic load tests on prestressed and partially prestressed beamcolumn joints. PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE INSTITUTE. JOURNAL, 22(5).##[2] Bull.D.K. and Park.R. (1986) “Seismic Resistance of Frames Incorporating Precast Prestressed Concrete Beam Shells”. PCI Journal. V.B1.NO.4. PP.5493##[3] Pillai.S.U. and Kirk.D.W. (1981) “Ductile BeamColumn Connection in Precast Concrete”. ACI Structural Journal. V.78 No.6, PP.480487.##[4] Bhatt.P and Kirk.D.W. (1985) “Tests on an improved BeamColumn connction for precast concrete”. ACI Structural Journal V.82 NO.6. PP.834843.##[5] Sekin.M. and Fu.H.C. (1990) “BeamColumn Connection in Precast Reinforced Concrete Construction”. ACI Structural Journal V.87.NO3.PP252261.##[6] Stanon.J.F., Anderson.R.G., Dolan.c.w. and Mc Cleary.D. E (1986) “Moment Resistant Connection and Simple Connections”. Research project NO.1/4. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. Chicago.##[7] Tankat.A.T., Ersoy.U and Ozacebe.G.(1998)” seismic performance of Precast Concrete Connection”, The 11th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Balkema, Austria. PP.3037.##[8] Khaloo.A.R. and Parastesh.H.(2003) “Cyclic Loading of Ductile Precast Concrete BeamColumn Connection”. ACI Structural Journal. V.100. NO.3. PP.291296##[9] Khaloo.A.R. and Parastesh.H.(2003) “Cyclic Loading Response of simple MomentResisting Precast Concrete BeamColumn Connection”. ACI Structural Journal. V.100. NO.4. PP.440445##[10] Parastesh.H., Khaloo.A. R & Ramezani.R. “Experimental Study of Interior Connection in Prefabricated R/C Frames”. Submitted to Engineering Structures.##[11] Parstesh H., Mobedi E., Ghasemi H. Amjadian, K. (2019), “Experimental Study for Strength Capacity of ColdFormed Steel Joists Connections with Consideration of Various Bolts Arrangements”, 7(2), 6170.##[12] Sudhakar.A. Kulkarni, Bini Li, Woon Kwong Yip (2007) “Finite element analysis of precast hybridsteel concrete connection under cyclic loading” Journal of Constructional Steel Research.##[13] Guan, D., Guo, Z., Jiang, C., Yang, S., & Yang, H. (2018). Experimental evaluation of precast concrete beamcolumn connections with highstrength steel rebars. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 113.##[14] Bahrami, S., Madhkhan, M., Shirmohammadi, F., & Nazemi, N. (2017). Behavior of two new moment resisting precast beam to column connections subjected to lateral loading. Engineering Structures, 132, 808821.##[15] Fathi, M., Parvizi, M., Karimi, J., & Afreidoun, M. H. (2018). Experimental and numerical study of a proposed momentresisting connection for precast concrete frames. Scientia Iranica, 25(4), 19771986.##[16] Xiao, J., Ding, T., & Zhang, Q. (2017). Structural behavior of a new momentresisting DfD concrete connection. Engineering Structures, 132, 113.##[17] Yan, Q., Chen, T., & Xie, Z. (2018). Seismic experimental study on a precast concrete beamcolumn connection with grout sleeves. Engineering Structures, 155, 330344.##[18] Alias, A., Zubir, M. A., Shahid, K. A., & RAhman, A. B. A. (2013). Structural performance of grouted sleeve connectors with and without transverse reinforcement for precast concrete structure. Procedia Engineering, 53, 116123.##[19] Clementi, F., Scalbi, A., & Lenci, S. (2016). Seismic performance of precast reinforced concrete buildings with dowel pin connections. Journal of Building Engineering, 7, 224238.##[20] Nzabonimpa, J. D., Hong, W. K., & Kim, J. (2017). Nonlinear finite element model for the novel mechanical beamcolumn joints of precast concretebased frames. Computers & Structures, 189, 3148.##[21] Girgin, S. C., Misir, İ. S., & Kahraman, S. (2017). Seismic performance factors for precast buildings with hybrid beamcolumn connections. Procedia engineering, 199, 35403545.##[22] Bompa, D. V., and A. Y. Elghazouli. (2019), "Inelastic cyclic behavior of RC members incorporating threaded reinforcement couplers." Engineering Structures 180: 468483.##[23] Woon, KaiSiong, and Farzad Hejazi. (2019), "Vertical Cyclic Performance of Precast Frame with Hookend Ushaped Highdamping Rubber Joint." KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering: 112.##[24] Hibbitt, Karlson&Sorensen Inc. (2005) ABAQUS/standard user’s manual, Version 6.5. Providence (RI).##[25] Mander J.B., Priestley M.J.N., Park R (1988). “Theoretical stressstrain, Vol. 114, No. 8, pp. 18041826##[26] Sargin.M. (1971) “stressstrain Relationships for concrete and the analysis of structural concrete sections.”, university of waterloo.##[27] AbKadir, Mariyana A., et al. (2014), "Experimental and Numerical Study on Softening and Pinching Effects of Reinforced Concrete Frame." IOSR Journal of Engineering 4.5: 1.##]
TimeDependent Structural Behavior of Repaired Corroded RC Columns Located in a Marine Site
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The chloride corrosion of reinforcing steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures is a significant reason for premature deterioration and failure of RC structures in aggressive environments such as the Persian Gulf region. This is one of the most important sources of engineering and economic problems in developed countries. So, modeling chloride permeation and investigating different methods for the repair and maintenance of RC structures exposed to corrosive environments are very important for optimizing the service life and life cycle cost of these structures. In this research, a finite element model is applied to assess the timedependent capacity of corroded RC structures using nonlinear analysis; this includes the impact of corrosion on inelastic buckling and lowcycle fatigue degradation of reinforcements. In this analysis, the influence of shotcrete repair after the initial cracking of concrete cover as a rehabilitation method on the performance of a corroded square RC column due to chlorideinduced corrosion is investigated.
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49


Atiye
Farahani
Department of Civil Engineering, Tafresh University, Tafresh, Iran, P.O.Box 3951879611
Iran
afarahani@tafreshu.ac.ir


Mohammad
Shekarchi
School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, P.O.Box 111554563
Iran
shekarchi@ut.ac.ir
Repair
Corrosion
Failure mode
Reinforced Concrete Column
Shotcrete
[[1] LeRoy, D.H., and Kauhl, N.E. (1997). "Rehabilitation of the Macomb dam bridge." Practical Solutions for Bridge Strengthening and Rehabilitation, Washington.##[2] Vaysburd, A.M., and Emmons, P.H. (2004). "Corrosion inhibitors and other protective systems in concrete repair: concepts or misconcepts." Cement and Concrete Composites (Elsevier), Vol. 26, pp. 255263.##[3] Alizadeh, R., Ghods, P., Chini, M., Hoseini, M., Ghalibafian, M., Shekarchi, M. (2008). "Effect of curing conditions on the service life design of RC structure in the Persian Gulf region." Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), Vol. 20(1), pp. 28.##[4] Ghoddousi, P., Ganjian, E., Parhizkar, T., Ramezanianpour, A.A. (1998). "Concrete technology in the environmental conditions of Persian Gulf." BHRC Publication.##[5] Temperley, T.G. (1965). "Corrosion phenomena in the Coastal areas of the Persian Gulf." Corrosion Science (Elsevier), Vol. 5, pp. 581589.##[6] Valipour, M., Pargar, F., Shekarchi, M., Khani, S., Moradian, M. (2013). "In situ study of chloride ingress in concretes containing natural zeolite, metakaolin and silica fume exposed to various exposure conditions in a harsh marine environment." Construction and Building Materials (Elsevier), Vol. 46, pp. 6370.##[7] Farahani, A., Taghaddos, H., Shekarchi, M. (2018). "Chloride diffusion modeling in pozzolanic concrete in marine site." ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 115, pp. 509518.##[8] Rodrigues, M.P.M.C., Costa, M.R.N., Mendes, A.M., Eusebio Marques, M.I. (2000). "Effectiveness of surface coatings to protect reinforced concrete in marine environments." Materials and Structures (Springer), Vol. 33, pp. 618626.##[9] Ehlen, M.A. (2012). "Life365™ Service Life Prediction Model™ and computer program for predicting the service life and lifecycle cost of reinforced concrete exposed to chlorides." Manual of Life365™ Version 2.1, Produced by the Life365™ Consortium II.##[10] Ferreira, R.M. (2010). "Optimization of RC structure performance in marine environment." Engineering Structures, Vol. 32, pp. 14891494.##[11] Saetta, A.V., Scotta, R.V., Vitaliani, R.V. (1993). "Analysis of chloride diffusion into partially saturated concrete." ACI Materials Journal (ACI), Vol. 90, pp. 441451.##[12] Khaghanpour, R., Dousti, A., Shekarchi, M. (2016). "Prediction of cover thickness based on longterm chloride penetration in a marine environment." Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities (ASCE), Vol. , pp. 110.##[13] Ann, K.Y., Ahn, J.H., Ryou, J.S. (2009). "The importance of chloride content at the concrete surface in assessing the time to corrosion of steel in concrete structures." Construction and Building Materials (Elsevier), Vol. 23, pp. 239245.##[14] Costa, A., Appleton, J. (1999b). "Chloride penetration into concrete in marine environment; Part II: Prediction of long term chloride penetration." Materials and Structures, Vol. 32, pp. 354359.##[15] Liu, T., Weyers, R.W. (1998b). "Modeling the dynamic corrosion process in chloride contaminated concrete structures." Cement and Concrete Research (Elsevier), Vol. 28, pp. 365379.##[16] Alonso, C., Andrade, C., Gonzalez, J. (1988). "Relation between resistivity and corrosion rate of reinforcements in carbonated mortar made with several cement types." Cement and Concrete Research (Elsevier), Vol. 8, pp. 687698.##[17] Kong, Q., Gong, G., Yang, J., Song, X. (2006). "The corrosion rate of reinforcement in chloride contaminated concrete." Low Temperature Architecture Technology, Vol. 111, pp. 12.##[18] Vu, K.A.T., Stewart, M.G. (2000). "Structural reliability of concrete bridges including improved chlorideinduced corrosion models." Structural Safety (Elsevier), Vol. 22, pp. 313333.##[19] Choe D., Gardoni P., Rosowsky D., Haukaas T. (2008). "Probabilistic capacity models and seismic fragility estimates for RC columns subject to corrosion." Reliab Eng Syst Safe, Vol. 93, pp. 383393.##[20] Enright, M.P., Frangopol, D.M. (1999). "Maintenance planning for deteriorating concrete bridges." Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), Vol. 125(12), pp. 14071414.##[21] Afsar Dizaj, E., Madandoust, R., Kashani, M.M. (2018). "Exploring the impact of chlorideinduced corrosion on seismic damage limit states and residual capacity of RC structures." Structure and Infrastructure Engineering (Taylor and Francis), Vol. 14, pp. 714729.##[22] Berry, M.P., and Eberhard, M.O. (2006). "Performance modeling strategies for modern reinforced concrete bridge columns." Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.##[23] Farahani, A. (2014). "Performance evaluation of numerical models for study of chloride ion diffusion in concrete structures in Persian Gulf." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tehran, School of Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran, 154 pp.##[24] Farahani, A., Taghaddos, H., Shekarchi, M. (2015). "Prediction of longterm chloride diffusion in silica fume concrete in a marine environment." Cement and Concrete Composites (Elsevier), Vol. 59, pp. 1017.##[25] Luping, T. (1996). "Chloride Transport in Concrete, Measurement and Prediction." Ph.D. Dissertation, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Building Materials, Goteborg, Sweden, 104 pp.##[26] Vidal, T., Castel, A., Francois, R. (2004). "Analyzing crack width to predict corrosion in reinforced concrete." Cement and Concrete Research (Elsevier), Vol. 34, pp. 165174.##[27] Liu, Y., and Weyers, R.E. (1998a). "Modeling the timetocorrosion cracking in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete structures." ACI Materials Journal (ACI), Vol. 95, pp. 675681.##[28] Val, D.V. (2007). "Factors affecting lifecycle cost analysis of RC structures in chloride contaminated environments." Journal of Infrastructure Systems (ASCE), Vol. 13, pp. 135143.##]
A New Method for Calculating Earthquake Characteristics and Nonlinear Spectra Using Wavelet Theory
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2
In the present study using the wavelet theory (WT) and later the nonlinear spectrum response of the acceleration (NSRA) resulted in estimating a strong earthquake record for the structure to a degree of freedom. WT was used in order to estimate the acceleration of earthquake mapping with equal sampling method (WTESM). Therefore, at first, the acceleration recorded in an earthquake using WTESM was studied in 5 levels. And then for calculating the strong ground parameters (SGP) and the NSRA of the structure the filtered wave was used instead of using the main earthquake record (MER). The wavelet stages result in a more lenient filtered wave and it is better for calculating SGP and NSR because the noise is filtered. The method suggested for a large number of earthquakes was used and the results are detailed in the case of Kermanshah earthquake. Results show that in case of using WTESM, SGP error estimation would be less than 2% and the calculation error for NSRA would be less than 11%.
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50
62


Ali
Heidari
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Iran
heidari@sku.ac.ir


Jalil
Raeisi
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Iran
jalilraeisidehkordi@gmail.com


Shirin
Pahlavan Sadegh
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Iran
shirin.pahlavan@gmail.com
Strong ground parameters
nonlinear spectrum response
wavelet theory
wavelet denoising
[[1] Boore, D. M. (1983). “Stochastic simulation of highfrequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 73, pp. 18651894.##[2] YaghmaeiSabegh, S., RuizGarcía, J. (2016). “Nonlinear response analysis of SDOF systems subjected to doublet earthquake ground motions: A case study on 2012 Varzaghan–Ahar” events. Engineering Structures, vol. 110, pp. 281292.##[3] Rathje, E. M., Abrahamson, N. A., Bray, J. D. (1998). “Simplified frequency content estimates of earthquake ground motions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.” Vol. 124, pp. 150159.##[4] Heidari, A., Salajegheh, E. (2008). “Wavelet analysis for processing of earthquake records.” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(5), 513524##[5] Salajegheh, E., Heidari, A. (2005a). “Optimum design of structures against earthquake by wavelet neural network and filter banks.” Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, vol. 34(1), pp. 6782.##[6] Salajegheh, E., Heidari, A. (2005b). “Time history dynamic analysis of structures using filter banks and wavelet transforms.” Computers & structures, vol. 83(1), pp. 5368.##[7] Salajegheh, E., Gholizadeh, S., Torkzadeh, P. (2007). “Optimal desigin of structures with frequency constraints using wavelet back propagation neural.” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, pp. 97111.##[8] Gholizadeh, S., Samavati, O. A. (2011). “Structural optimization by wavelet transforms and neural networks.” Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 35(2), pp. 915929.##[9] Salajegheh, E., Gholizadeh, S. (2012). “Structural seismic optimization using metaheuristics and neural networks: a review.” Computational Technology Reviews, Vol. 5(1), pp. 109137.##[10] Pnevmatikos, N. G., Hatzigeorgiou, G. D. (2017). “Damage detection of framed structures subjected to earthquake excitation using discrete wavelet analysis” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 227248.##[11] Heidari, A., Raeisi, J. (2018). “Optimum Design of Structures Against earthquake by Simulated Annealing Using Wavelet Transform.” Soft Computing in Civil Engineering, doi: 10.22115/scce.2018.125682.1055##[12] Chopra, A.K. (1995). “Dynamics of Structures” vol. 3. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.##[13] Paz, M. (2012). “Structural dynamics: theory and computation.” Springer Science & Business Media.##[14] Heidari, A., Raeisi, J., Kamgar, R. (2018). “APPLICATION OF WAVELET THEORY IN DETERMINING OF STRONG GROUND MOTION PARAMETERS.” International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, vol. , pp. 103115.##[15] Raeisi, J. (2017). “Investigation of strong ground motion using a wavelet theory for hydraulic structure in far fault.” MSc Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Iran. Shahrekord, Iran.##[16] PahlavanSadegh, S. (2018). “Approximation of nonlinear m response spectrum of hydraulic structures using wavelet theory.” MSc Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.##[17] Heidari, A., Raeisi, J., Kamgar., R., “The application of wavelet theory with denoising to estimate the parameters of earthquake”. Scientia Iranica, Accepted Manuscript, 2019. DOI: 10.24200/SCI.2019.50675.1815##[18] Heidari, A., Pahlavan sadegh, S., Raeisi., J., “Investigating the effect of soil type on nonlinear response spectrum using wavelet theory”, International Journal of Civil Engineering, Accepted Manuscript, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999019003946##[19] Daubechies, I. (1990). “The wavelet transform, timefrequency localization and signal analysis.” IEEE transactions on information theory, vol. 36, pp. 9611005.##[20] Naderpour, H., Fakharian, P., (2016), “A Synthesis of Peak Picking Method and Wavelet Packet Transform for Structural Modal Identification”, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 2859–2867; DOI: 10.1007/s1220501605234.##[21] Rioul O, Vetterli M. 1991. “Wavelets and signal processing.” IEEE special magazine, pp. 14–38.##[22] Woods, J. W. (1991). “Subband image coding.” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.##[23] Arias, A. (1970). “Measure of earthquake intensity”, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech. Cambridge. Univ. of Chile, Santiago de Chile.##[24] Park, Y. J., Ang, A. H. S., Wen, Y. K. (1985). “Seismic damage analysis of reinforced concrete buildings.” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 111, pp. 740757.##[25] Kramer, S. L. (1996). “Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering.” Prentice Hall. New York.##[26] Housner GW. (1975). “Measures of severity of earthquake ground shaking.” In: Proceedings of the first US national conference on earthquake engineering, Ann Arbor, MI.##]
Bridge Bed Strengthening, Disaster Prevention due to Scouring
2
2
One of the most important factors in determining the depth of foundations in structures adjacent to the water flow is the scouring phenomenon; the scouring is a phenomenon caused by the interactions between water flow and erodible bed materials, which causes the removal of sediments where hydraulic structures are located, including bridge piers. Every year, a great number of bridges are damaged due to local scoring of their piers and foundations. In this paper, the geotechnical study of Malahide viaduct failure due to scouring was carried out using Plaxis 2D software. For this purpose, the Malahide viaduct, which was damaged in 2009 due to bed scouring of one of its piers, was selected and the necessary simulations were carried out based on the bridge specifications, and the conditions of the bridge underlying bed was investigated. Simulations results showed that the cause of scouring in the bed of collapsed pier was the high shear strains of the bed, bed shear strength parameters (i.e. angle of internal friction and cohesion) reduction and as a result, reducing the bed resistance to the scouring. It was also found that by using the micropile group below the foundation of bridge pier as a solution to reduce the scouring effect, the bed maximum scour depth is significantly reduced compared to the shallow foundations without micropiles; Also, by using the micropile group, the shallow foundation thickness can be reduced, provided that after foundation thickness reduction and micropiles application, the structure safety factor remains in the stable range.
1

63
74


Majid
Fadam Marfavi
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
majidmarfavi@gmail.com


Shamsa
Basirat
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
basirat.sh@pci.iaun.ac.ir


Sadegh
Sadeghi
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
sad.sadeghi88@yahoo.com
Local Scour
Bridge pier
Malahide viaduct
Shallow foundation
Micropile
[[1] Ghorbani, B., Kells, J.A. (2008). “Effect of submerged vanes on the scour occurring at a cylindrical pier.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 46, No .5, pp. 610619.##[2] MoncadaM, A.T., AguirrePe, J., Bolívar, J.C., Flores, E.J. (2009). “Scour protection of circular bridge piers with collars and slots.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 119126.##[3] Grimaldi, C., Gaudio, R., Calomino, F., Cardoso, A.H. (2009). “Control of scour at bridge piers by a downstream bed sill.” Journal of Hydrolic Engineering, University of NebraskaLincoln, Vol. 135, No. 1, pp. 1321.##[4] Bozkus, Z., Cesme, M. (2010). “Reduction of scouring depth by using inclined piers.” Can. J. Civ. Eng., Vol. 37, No. 12, pp. 16211630.##[5] Debnath, K., Chaudhuri, S. (2011). “Effect of suspended sediment concentration on local scour around cylinder for clay–sand mixed sediment beds.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 117, No. 3–4, pp. 236245.##[6] Eghbali, P., Dehghani, A.A, Arghavani, H., Menazadeh, M. (2013). “The effect of geometric parameters and foundation depth on scour pattern around bridge pier.” Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 156163.##[7] Imamzadehei, A. N., Heidarpour, M., Imamzadehei, M. N, Fazlollahi, A. (2013). “Control of local scour around bridge pier groups using geotextile armored soil.” Journal of River Engineering. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 16.##[8] Ardeshiri, A.M., Saneie, M. (2015). “Experimental study on lozenge collar affection in reduce amount of scouring around bridge piers.” Iranian Water Research Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 121130.##[9] Fael, C., Lanca, R., Cardoso, A. (2016). “Effect of pier shape and pier alignment on the equilibrium scour depth at single piers.” International Journal of Sediment Research, Vol.31, No. 3, pp.244250.##[10] Khan, M., Tufail, M., Azmathullah, H.M., Aslam, M.S., Khan, F.Y., Khan, A., Fahad, M. (2017). “Experimental analysis of bridge pier scour pattern.” Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (JEAS), UK, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 111.##[11] Amini, N., Balouchi, B., Shafai Bajestan, M. (2017). “Reduction of local scour at river confluences using a collar.” International Journal of Sediment Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 364372.##[12] F.Marfavi, M. (2018). “Improvement of bridge pier foundation performance under scouring conditions using micropiles.” (In Persian) M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.##[13] “Railway Accident Investigation Unit (RAIU), Malahide viaduct collapse on the dublin to belfast line, on the 21st August 2009.” (2010). Investigation Report No. 2010 – R004, Ireland.##[14] Budho, M., Noorzad, A. (2013). “Soil mechanics and foundations.” (In Persian), Shahid Abbaspour Power and Water University of Technology Publications.##[15] Fathollahzadeh, S. (2016). “Mechanical and dynamical modeling of earth structures by plaxis.” (In Persian), Third edition, Noavar Publications.##[16] Phillip, S.K.O., Rahimnejad, R. (2016) “Factors Affecting Critical Shear Stress of Scour of Cohesive Soil Beds.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2578, pp. 7280.##[17] Gómez, J. , Cadden, A. , Traylor, R.P. , Bruce, D.A. , “Connection capacity between micropiles and existing footingsbond strength to concrete” , Cadden DABaAW, editor. Geo3 GEO Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control Conference Proceedings. Dallas/Ft. Worth, TXS, pp.196–216, 2005.##[18] Federal Highway Administration  Priority Technologies Program , “Micropile design and construction guidelines” , Publication No. FHWA– SA–97–070 , US Department of Transportation, June 2000.##]
Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis of Structures Using Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Systems
2
2
In this study, Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Monte Carlo simulation are utilized for reliability analysis of structures. The drawback of Monte Carlo Simulation is the amount of computational efforts. ANFIS is capable of approximating structural response for calculating probability of failure, letting the computation burden at much lower cost. In fact, ANFIS derives adaptively an explicit approximation of the implicit limit state functions. For this purpose, a quasisensitivity analysis based on ANFIS was developed for determination of dominant design variables, led to the approximation of the structural failure probability. Preparation of ANFIS however, was preceded using a relaxation based method developed by which the optimum number of training samples and epochs was obtained. That was introduced to more efficiently reduce the computational time of ANFIS training. The proposed methodology was considered using some illustrative examples.
1

75
86


Amin
Ghorbani
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), 193953697 Tehran, I.R. of Iran
Iran
aghorbani@pnu.ac.ir


Mohamad Reza
Ghasemi
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, 9816745437, Iran
Iran
mrghasemi@hamoon.usb.ac.ir
Reliability
Monte Carlo
Quasi sensitivity
Fuzzy systems
[[1] Shen J., Seker O., Akbas B., Seker P., Momenzadeh S. and Faytarouni M. (2017), “Seismic performance of concentrically braced frames with and without brace buckling”, Eng. Struct., 141, 461481.##[2] Momenzadeh, S., Kazemi M.T., Asl M.H., (2017), “Seismic performance of reduced web section moment connections”, Int. J. St. Struct., 17(2), 413425.##[3] Ditlevsen, O. and Madsen, H.O. (1996), Structral reliability methods, John Wiley & Sons Inc., England.##[4] Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. (2000), Probability, reliability and statistical methods in engineering design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., England.##[5] Nowak, A. S. and K. R. Collins (2000), Reliability of Structures, McGrawHill, Singapore.##[6] Lemieux, C. (2009), Monte Carlo and QuasiMonte Carlo Sampling, Springer Science, Waterloo, Canada.##[7] Ghasemi, M.R. and Ghorbani, A. (2007), "Application of wavelet neural networks in optimization of skeletal buildings under frequency constraints", Int. J. Intel. Tech., 2(4), 223231.##[8] Ba datli, S.M., Özkaya, E., Özyi it, H.A. and Tekin, A. (2009), "Nonlinear vibrations of stepped beam systems using artificial neural networks", Struct. Eng. Mech., 33(1), 1124.##[9] Papadrakakis, M., Papadopoulos, V. and Lagaro, N. (1996), "Structural reliability analysis of elasticplastic structures using neural networks and Monte Carlo simulation", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 63, 136145.##[10] Cardoso, J.B., Almeida, J.R., Dias, J.M. and Coelho, P.G. (2007), "Structural reliability analysis using Monte Carlo simulation and neural networks", Comp. Struct., 39(1), 503513##[11] Godjevac, J. (1993), "State of the art in the neuro fuzzy field", Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Département d’Informatique, Laboratoire de Microinformatique, Technical report, 93.25, 118.##[12] Fu, J.Y., Li, Q.S. and Xie, Z.N. (2006), "Prediction of wind loads on a large flat roof using fuzzy neural networks", Eng. Struct., 28, 153161.##[13] Fonseca, E. T. and Vellasco, P. C. G. (2007), "A neurofuzzy evaluation of steel beams patch load behavior", Adv. Eng. Soft., 39, 558572.##[14] Topcu, I. E. and Sardemir, M. (2007), "Prediction of rubberized concrete properties using artificial neural network and fuzzy logic" Constr. Build. Mat., 22, 532540.##[15] Topcu, I. E. and Sardemir, M. (2008), "Prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash using artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic", Comp. Mat. Sci., 41, 305311.##[16] Faravelli, L. and Yao, T. (1996), "Use of adaptive networks in fuzzy control of civil structures", Microcomp. Civil Eng., 11, 6776.##[17] Ghorbani, A. and Ghasemi, M.R. (2009), "Reliability based optimization of truss structures using neurofuzzy systems", Proceedings of 8th World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, June.##[18] Melchers, R. E. and Ahmed, M. (2004), "A fast approximation method for parameter sensitivity estimation in Monte Carlo structural reliability", Comp. Struct, 82, 5561.##[19] Song, J. and Kang, W.H. (2009), "System reliability and sensitivity under statistical dependence by matrixbased system reliability method", Struct. Safety, 31, 148156.##[20] Marseguerra, M., Masini, R., Zio, E. and Cojazzi, G. (2003), "Variance decompositionbased sensitivity analysis via neural networks", Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safe., 79, 229238.##[21] Mahadevan, S. (1996), Monte Carlo Simulation in ReliabilityBased Mechanical Design, Marcel Dekker, NY.##[22] Zadeh, L.A. (1965), "Fuzzy sets", Inf. Contr., 8(3), 338353.##[23] Sugeno, M. (1985), Industrial applications of fuzzy control, Elsevier Science Pub. Co.##[24] Wang, Y. M. and Elhag, T. (2008), "An adaptive neurofuzzy inference system for bridge risk assessment", Expert Syst. Appl., 34, 30993106.##[25] Jang, J.S.R. (1993), "ANFIS: Adaptivenetworkbased fuzzy inference systems", IEEE, Trans. Syst. Man Cyber., 23, 665–685.##[26] Saltteli, A., Tarantola, S., Compolongo, F. and Ratto, M. (2004), Sensitivity analysis in practice, John Wiley & Sons Inc., England.##[27] Kiureghian, A. D., Lin, H. Z., and Hwang, S. J. (1987), "Secondorder reliability approximations", J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 113(8), 12081225.##[28] Cheng, J. (2007), "Hybrid genetic algorithms for structural reliability analysis", Comp. Struct., 85, 15241533.##]
Investigating the Relation among British Pendulum Number, Mean Texture Depth and Asphalt Content in Hot Mix Asphalt
2
2
Pavement surface texture and its skid resistance are two key safety parameters of highways, which both are influenced by pavement characteristics. This research is done on a newly constructed asphalt pavement (QomGarmsar freeway) in Iran. The goal is investigating the relation between skid resistance and pavement texture in order to asphalt content changes in Hot Mix Asphalt. Mean Texture Depth (MTD) and British Pendulum Number (BPN) are being used to quantify pavement texture and skid resistance, respectively. The results show that the asphalt content has a significant effect on MTD and consequently, BPN in loaded pavements, as well as nonloaded pavements. The result showed that the lowest BPN value obtained, when the asphalt content is about the optimum value. Moreover, it is demonstrated that using asphalt contents less and more than the optimum value, results in BPN improvement. Asphalt content increasing, around optimum value, leads to MTD decrease. The results also show that by increasing the MTD, the BPN decreases to 75 (in MTD value of 0.62 mm) and then increases.
1

87
96


Mohammad Hossain
Jalal Kamali
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran
m.jalalkamali@gmail.com


Abolfazl
Hassani
Professor, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hassani@modares.ac.ir


Javad
Sodagari
Zamin Payeh Consulting Engineering
Iran
drjdsi@yahoo.com
Mean Texture Depth
British Pendulum Number
Pavement Texture
Asphalt Content
Friction
[[1] Jalal Kamali, MH., (2012). “The feasibility of using transition curve in road design to improve safety". M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.##[2] Karimi, N., (2013). “Design and manufacturing an automatic measuring pavement skid resistance system based on image processing approach ". M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Tehran, Iran. 2013##[3] Wallman, C. G., & Åström, H. (2001). Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety: A literature review. Statens vägoch transport forsknings institut.##[4] Monajjem, M. S., Kamali, J., Hossain, M., & Ayubirad, M. S. (2013). Studying the effect of spiral curves and intersection angle, on the accident ratios in twolane rural highways in Iran. PrometTraffic&Transportation, 25(4), 343348 DOI: 10.7307/ptt.v25i4.332##[5] Ahammed, M. A., & Tighe, S. L. (2008). Pavement surface mixture, texture and skid resistance: A factorial analysis. Airfield and Highway Pavements, 329, 370384. DOI: 10.1061/41005(329)32##[6] Viner, H., Sinhal, R., & Parry, T. (2004). Review of UK skid resistance policy. Preprint SURF.##[7] Iranian legal medicine organization. http://en.lmo.ir/##[8] PIARC World Road Association. (1987, September). Report of the committee on surface characteristics. In Proceeding of XVIII World Road Congress (pp. 1319).##[9] Hall, J. W., Smith, K. L., TitusGlover, L., Wambold, J. C., Yager, T. J., & Rado, Z. (2009). Guide for pavement friction. Final Report for NCHRP Project, 1, 43. DOI: 10.17226/23038##[10] Mahone, D. C. (1977). Texturing new concrete pavements (No. VHTRC 77R25). Virginia Transportation Research Council.##[11] Yager, T. J., & Bühlmann, F. (1982). Macrotexture and drainage measurements on a variety of concrete and asphalt surfaces. In Pavement Surface Characteristics and Materials. ASTM International. DOI: 10.1520/STP28460S##[12] Olek, J., Weiss, W. J., & GarciaVillarreal, R. (2004). Relating surface texture of rigid pavement with noise and skid resistance.##[13] Jalal Kamali, M.H., Hassani, Abolfazl and Sodagari, Javad. (2019). Investigation the Relation between Skid Resistance and Mean Texture Depth in Concrete Pavements. Concrete Researsh, Volume 12, Issue 1  Serial Number 25, Spring 2019, pp 2738. DOI: 10.22124/JCR.2018.9079.1242##[14] Wambold, J. C., & Henry, J. J. (2002). NASA Wallops Tire/Runway Friction Workshops: 19932002 (No. TP 14190E).##[15] Fwa, T. F., Choo, Y. S., & Liu, Y. (2003). Effect of aggregate spacing on skid resistance of asphalt pavement. Journal of transportation engineering, 129(4), 420426. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733947X(2003)129 :4(420)##[16] Ahammed, M. A., & Tighe, S. L. (2011). Asphalt pavements surface texture and skid resistance—exploring the reality. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 39(1), 19. DOI: 10.1139/l11109##[17] Ahadi, M. R., & Nasirahmadi, K. (2013). The effect of asphalt concrete micro & macro texture on skid resistance. Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 1(1), 1528. DOI: 10.22075/JRCE.2013.2##[18] Asi, I. M. (2007). Evaluating skid resistance of different asphalt concrete mixes. Building and Environment, 42(1), 325329. DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.08.020##[19] ASTM E96515, (2015). Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Macrotexture Depth Using a Volumetric Technique, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA##[20] Woodward, D. (2016). Wet skid resistance.##[21] ASTM E30393, (2013). Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Frictional Properties Using the British Pendulum Tester, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.##[22] Ongel, A., Kohler, E., Lu, Q., & Harvey, J. (2008). Comparison of surface characteristics and pavement/tire noise of various thin asphalt overlays. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 9(2), 333344. DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2008.9690121##[23] ASTM D2172 / D2172M17, (2017), Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Asphalt Binder from Asphalt Mixtures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.##[24] Henry, J. J. (2000). Evaluation of pavement friction characteristics (Vol. 291). Transportation Research Board.##[25] Raymond, N., & Soshi, M. (2016). A study on the effect of abrasive filament tool on performance of sliding guideways for machine tools. Procedia CIRP, 45, 223226. DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.169##]
Experimental Study of Reinforced Concrete Frame Rehabilitated by Concentric and Eccentric Bracing
2
2
Adding steel braces to reinforced concrete frames is a common way for seismic rehabilitation of these structures. Due to ease of installation and the possibility of creating openings in the braced bays, this method of rehabilitation has been more preferred than using shear walls. In this paper, three experimental specimens including a reinforced concrete frame, a reinforced concrete frame with concentric bracing and a reinforced concrete frame with eccentric bracing are constructed and their cyclic behavior investigated and compared with each other. Results show that the ultimate loads of the both concrete frames with concentric and eccentric braces are about 2.11 and 1.9 times more than that of reinforced concrete frame, respectively. Ductility of rehabilitated frame by eccentric bracing is more than that of reinforced concrete frame and rehabilitated frame by concentric bracing too. Moreover, the absorbed energy of the rehabilitated frames with eccentric and concentric bracing is about 1.98 and 1.63 times more than that of concrete frame.
1

97
108


Ali
Hemmati
Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University
Iran
ali.hemmati@semnaniau.ac.ir


Ali
Kheyroddin
Civil Engineering Faculty, Semnan University
Iran
kheyroddin@semnan.ac.ir


Mohammad
Farzad
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch
Iran
mohamadfarzad@gmail.com
Rehabilitation
Reinforced concrete frame
Concentric Bracing
Eccentric Bracing
hysteresis curve
[[1] Desai, J.P., Jain, A.K., Arya, A.S. (1987). "Seismic response of RC braced frames", Computers and Structures, Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 557568.##[2] Badux, M., Jirsa, J.O. (1991)."Steel bracing of RC frames for seismic retrofitting", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 116, Issue 1.##[3] Maheri, M.R., Sahebi, A. (1997)."Use of steel bracing in reinforced concrete frames", Engineering Structures, Vol. 19, Issue 12,pp. 10181024.##[4] Ghobarah, A., Elfath, H.A. (2001)."Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete frame using eccentric steel bracing", Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, Issue 7, pp. 745755.##[5] Shan, H., Di, T. (2003)."Seismic behavior of RC braced frames", ACI Structural Journal.##[6] Maheri, M.R., Kousari, R., Razazan, M. (2003)."Pushover tests on steel Xbraced RC frames", Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 16971705.##[7] Maheri, M.R., Hadjipour, A. (2003)."Experimental investigation and design of steel brace connection to RC frame", Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 17071714.##[8] Hemmati, A. (2006)."Seismic rehabilitation of a 7story reinforced concrete building by steel concentric bracings", Research Bulletin of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 34.##[9] Ghaffarzadeh, H., Maheri, M.R.(2006)."Cyclic tests on the internally braced RC frames", JSEE, Vol. 8, Issue 3, pp. 177186.##[10] Ghaffarzadeh, H., Maheri, M.R.(2006)."Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, Vol. 5, Issue 1.##[11] Youssef, M.A., Ghaffarzadeh, H., Nehdi, M. (2007)."Seismic performance of RC frames with concentric internal steel bracing", Engineering Structures, Vol. 29, Issue 7, pp. 15611568.##[12] kheyroddin, A. (2008)."Investigation of nonlinear behavior of bending RC frames strengthened by steel bracings", International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 2535.##[13] Maheri, M.R., Ghaffarzadeh, H. (2008)."Connection overstrength in steel braced RC frames", Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, pp. 19381948.##[14] Massumi, A., Tasnimi, A.A. (2008)."Strengthening of low ductile reinforced concrete frames using steel Xbracings with different details", The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, China.##[15] GhodratiAmiri, G., Gholamrezatabar, A. (2008)."Energy dissipation capacity of shear link in rehabilitated reinforced concrete frame using eccentric steel bracing", 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, China.##[16] Said, A., Nehdi, M. (2008)."Rehabilitation of RC frame joints using local steel bracing", Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 6, pp. 431447.##[17] Mazzolani, F.M., Corte, G.D., D'Aniello, M. (2009)."Experimental analysis of steel dissipative bracing systems for seismic upgrading", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pp. 719.##[18] Massumi, A., Absalan, M. (2013). "Interaction between bracing system and moment resisting frame in braced RC frames", Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 260268.##[19] Hemmati, A., Kheyroddin, A. (2013). "Behavior of largescale bracing system in tall buildings subjected to earthquake loads", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 206216.##[20] Umesh, R.B, Shivaraj, M. (2014)."Seismic response of reinforced concrete structure by using different bracing systems", International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3.##[21] Karthic, K.M, Vidyashree, D. (2015)."Effect of steel bracing on vertically irregular RC building frames under seismic loads", International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4.##[22] Huang, L., Tan, H., Yan, L. (2015)."Seismic behavior of chevron braced reinforced concrete frame", Materials and Structures, Vol. 48, Issue 12, pp. 40054018.##[23] Ince, G., Ince, H.H., Ocal, C. (2015)."Seismic behavior of RC frames retrofitted by eccentrically braced frames with vertical link", 27th The IIER International Conference, Russia.##[24] Gong, J., Zhu, Z., Zeng, C. (2017)."Review of research and application of reinforced concrete structures strengthened by braces", 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering and Material Science.##[25] Kheyroddin, A., Gholhaki, M., Pachide, G. (2019). "Seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete moment frames retrofitted with steel braces using IDA and pushover methods in the nearfault field", Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, Vol. 7, Issue 1, pp. 227241.##[26] Maheri, M.R., Akbari, R. (2003)."Seismic behavior factor for steel Xbraced and kneebraced RC buildings", Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 15051513.##[27] Maheri, M.R., Akbari, R. (2013)."Analytical investigation of response modification (behaviour) factor, R, for reinforced concrete frames rehabilitated by steel chevron bracing", Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 9, Issue 6, pp. 507515.##[28] BHRC.(2014)."Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings", 4th edition.##[29] ACI374.105 (2005)."Accepted criteria for moment frames based on structural testing and commentary", American Concrete Institute.##[30] Paulay, T, Priestly, M.J.N. (1992). "Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings". Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.##]
An Effective Approach for Damage Identification in BeamLike Structures Based on Modal Flexibility Curvature and Particle Swarm Optimization
2
2
In this paper, a computationally simple approach for damage localization and quantification in beamlike structures is proposed. This method is based on using modal flexibility curvature (MFC) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Analytical studies in the literature have shown that changes in the modal flexibility curvature can be considered as a sensitive and suitable criterion for identifying damage in the beamlike structures. Modal flexibility curvature can be calculated utilizing central difference approximation, based on entries of the modal flexibility matrix. The PSO algorithm, as a powerful optimization tool, is used to minimize the error function which is formulated as an error function between the measured modal flexibility curvatures of the damaged structure and those calculated from the analytical structure. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, two beamlike structures under different damage scenarios are studied. In addition, the robustness of presented method is investigated when only the first several modal data are available. It is observed that the proposed approach is able to localize and quantify various damage cases only by a few lower vibrational modes and also, it is lowsensitive to measurement noise.
1

109
120


Siavash
Nadjafi
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
siavashnadj@gmail.com


Gholamreza
Ghodrati Amiri
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology
Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir


Ali
Zare Hosseinzadeh
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology
Iran
a.hh.hoseinzade@gmail.com


Seyed Ali
Seyed Razzaghi
Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University
Iran
arazzaghi@pnu.ac.ir
Damage identification
Modal flexibility curvature
Particle swarm optimization (PSO)
Measurement noise
Beamlike structure
[[1] Abdo, M.A.B. (2012). “Parametric study of using only static response in structural damage detection”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 34, pp. 124131.##[2] Pandey, A.K., Biswas, M., Samman, M.M. (1991). “Damage detection from changes in curvature mode shapes”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 145, pp. 321333.##[3] Abdel Wahab, M.M., DeRoeck, G. (1999). “Damage detection in bridges using modal curvatures: application to a real damage scenario”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 226, No. 2, pp. 217235.##[4] Lin, R.J., Cheng, F.P. (2008). “Multiple crack identification of a freefree beam with uniform material property variation and varied noised frequency”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, pp. 909929.##[5] Lu, X.B., Liu, J.K., Lu, Z.R. (2013). “A twostep approach for crack identification in beam”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 332, pp. 282293.##[6] Tomaszewska, A. (2010). “Influence of statistical errors on damage detection based on structural flexibility and mode shape curvature”. Computers & Structures, Vol. 88, pp. 154164.##[7] Lu, Q., Ren, G., Zhao, Y. (2002). “Multiple damage location with flexibility curvature and relative frequency change for beam structures”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 253, No. 5, pp. 11011114.##[8] Wong, F.S., Thint, M.P., Tung, A.T. (1997). “Online detection of structural damage using neural networks”. Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Vol. 14, pp. 167–197.##[9] Sahin, M., Shenoi, R.A. (2003). “Quantification and localization of damage in beamlike structures by using artificial neural networks with experimental validation”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 17851802.##[10] Vinayak, H.K., Kumar, A., Agarwal, P., Thakkar, S.K. (2010). “Neural networkbased damage detection from transfer function changes”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 14, pp. 771–787.##[11] Lee, J. (2009). “Identification of multiple cracks in a beam using vibration amplitudes”. Journal of Sound and vibration, Vol. 326, pp. 205212.##[12] Lopes, P.S., Jorge, A.B., Cunha Jr, S.S. (2010). “Detection of holes in a plate using global optimization and parameter identification techniques”. Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 439463.##[13] Meruane, V., Heylen, W. (2011). “An hybrid real genetic algorithm to detect structural damage using modal properties”. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 25, pp. 15591573.##[14] Na, C., Kim, S.P., Kwak, H.G. (2011). “Structural damage evaluation using genetic algorithm”. Journal of Sound Vibration, Vol. 330, pp. 27722783.##[15] Mehrjoo, M., Khaji, N., GhaforyAshtiany, M. (2013). “Application of genetic algorithm in crack detection of beamlike structures using a new cracked Euler–Bernoulli beam element”. Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 13, pp. 867880.##[16] Zare Hosseinzadeh, A., Bagheri, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G. (2013). “Twostage method for damage localization and quantification in highrise shear frames based on the first mode shape slope”. International journal of optimization in civil engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 653672.##[17] Tabrizian, Z., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Hossein Ali Beigy, M. (2014). “Charged system search algorithm utilized for structural damage detection”. Shock and Vibration, Vol. 2014, 13 pages, Article ID: 194753.##[18] Ghodrati Amiri, G., Zare Hosseinzadeh, A., Seyed Razzaghi, S.A. (2015). “Generalized flexibility based model updating approach via democratic particle swarm optimization algorithm for structural damage prognosis”. International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 4465##[19] Zare Hosseinzadeh, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Seyed Razzaghi, S.A. (2017). “Modelbased identification of damage from sparse sensor measurements using Neumann series expansion”. Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 239259.##[20] Kaveh, A., Hoseini Vaez, S.R., Hosseini, P. (2019). “Enhanced vibrating particles system algorithm for damage identification of truss structures”. Scientia Iranica, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 246256.##[21] Kennedy, J., Eberhart, R. (1995). “Particle swarm optimization”. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on neural networks, Vol. 4, pp. 19421948.##[22] GolbonHaghighi, M.H., SaeidiManesh, H., Zhang, G., Zhang, Y. (2018). “Pattern synthesis for the cylindrical polarimetric phased array radar (CPPAR)”. Progress in Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 66, pp. 8798.##[23] Shi, Y., Eberhart, R.C. (1998). “A modified particle swarm optimizer”. Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 6973.##[24] Shi, Y., Eberhart, R.C. (1999). “Empirical study of particle swarm optimization”. Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 3, pp. 19451950.##]
Development of An Artificial Neural Network Model for Asphalt Pavement Deterioration Using LTPP Data
2
2
Deterioration models are important and essential part of any Pavement Management System (PMS). These models are used to predict future pavement situation based on existence condition, parameters causing deterioration and implications of various maintenance and rehabilitation policies on pavement. The majority of these models are based on roughness which is one of the most important indices in pavement evaluation. High correlation between International Roughness Index (IRI) and user comfort led to modeling pavement deterioration based on IRI during PMS history. On the other hand, in recent years Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which is a valuable tool of soft computing is used in pavement modeling, widely. This study assessed the development of an ANN pavement deterioration model based on IRI using BackPropagation Neural Networks (BPNN) technique. The LongTerm Pavement Performance (LTPP) data was extracted from two General Pavement Study (GPS) sections including GPS1 and GPS2. After training and testing the developed model, results were compared with a polynomial regression model. Results showed that predicted IRI values with developed ANN model have a good correlation with measured values rather than the polynomial regression model for both GPS1 and GPS2 sections.
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121
132


Nader
Solatifar
Department of Civil Engineering, Urmia University
Iran
n.solatifar@urmia.ac.ir


S. Mohammad
Lavasani
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
United States
ssada006@fiu.edu
Pavement Deterioration Modeling
International Roughness Index (IRI)
Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
LongTerm Pavement Performance (LTPP)
[[1] Haas, R., Hudson, W. R. and Falls, L. C. (2015). Pavement Asset Management, Scrivener Publishing with John Wiley & Sons.##[2] Ozbay, K. and Laub, R. (2001). Models for Pavement Deterioration Using LTPP, Report no. FHWANJ1999030, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.##[3] Haas, R., Hudson, W. R. and Zaniewski, J. P. (1994). Modern pavement management, Krieger, Malabor, Fla.##[4] Kim, Y.R. (2009). Modeling of asphalt concrete, ASCE press, McGrawHill.##[5] Bekheet, W., Helali, K., Halim, A. and Springer, J. (2005). A Comprehensive Approach for the Development of Performance Models for NetworkLevel PMS Using LTPP Data, Proceedings of 84th Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[6] Zhou, X. and Damnjanovic, I. D. (2011). Optimal Hedging of Commodity Price Risks in Highway Contracts, Proceedings of 90th Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[7] Shahin, M. Y. (2005). Pavement Management for Airports, Roads, and Parking Lots, Chapman & Hall, N.Y.##[8] AASHTO. (1993). AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.##[9] PorrasAlvarado, J. D., Zhang, Z. and Salazar, L. G. L. (2014). Probabilistic Approach to Modeling Pavement Performance Using IRI Data, Proceedings of 93rd Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[10] AASHTO. (2001). AASHTO Pavement Management Guide, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.##[11] Tsunokawa, K. and Schofer, J. (1994). Trend Curve Optimal Control Model for Highway Pavement Maintenance: Case Study and Evaluation, Transportation Research, Part A, 28(2), 151–166.##[12] Smith, J. and Tighe, S. (2004). Assessment of Overlay Roughness in LongTerm Pavement Performance – Canadian Case Study, Proceedings of 83th Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[13] Arifuzzaman, M. (2017). Advanced ANN prediction of moisture damage in cnt modified asphalt binder. Soft Computing in Civil Engineering, 1(1), 111. DOI: 10.22115/scce.2017.46317##[14] Rezazadeh Eidgahee, D., Haddad, A., & Naderpour, H. (2018). Evaluation of shear strength parameters of granulated waste rubber using artificial neural networks and group method of data handling. Scientia Iranica. DOI: 10.24200/SCI.2018.5663.1408##[15] Naderpour, H., Eidgahee, D. R., Fakharian, P., Rafiean, A. H., & Kalantari, S. M. (2019). A new proposed approach for moment capacity estimation of ferrocement members using Group Method of Data Handling. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. DOI: 0.1016/j.jestch.2019.05.013##[16] Rezazadeh Eidgahee, D., Rafiean, A. H., & Haddad, A. (2019). A Novel Formulation for the Compressive Strength of IBPBased Geopolymer Stabilized Clayey Soils Using ANN and GMDHNN Approaches. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, DOI: 10.1007/s40996019002631##[17] Naderpour, H., Nagai, K., Fakharian, P., & Haji, M. (2019). Innovative models for prediction of compressive strength of FRPconfined circular reinforced concrete columns using soft computing methods. Composite Structures, 215, 6984. DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.02.048##[18] KargahOstadi, N., Stoffels, S. and Tabatabaee, N. (2010). NetworkLevel Pavement Roughness Prediction Model for Rehabilitation Recommendations, Proceedings of 89th Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[19] ASTM E1274–18. (2018). Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Roughness Using a Profilograph, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.##[20] Mohamed Jaafar, Z. F., Uddin, W. and Najjar, Y. (2016). Asphalt Pavement Roughness Modeling Using the Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression Approaches for LTPP Southern U.S. States, Proceedings of 95th Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[21] Khattak, M. J., Nur, M. A., Bhuyan, M. RUK. and Gaspard, K. (2013). International Roughness Index Models for HMA Overlay Treatment of Flexible and Composite Pavements for Louisiana, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[22] Bekley, M. E. (2016). Pavement Deterioration Modeling Using Historical Roughness Data, M.Sc. Thesis, Arizona State University.##[23] Soncim, S. P. and Fernandes, J. L. (2013). Roughness Performance Model for Double Surface Treatment Highways, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[24] Smith, B. (2014). Factors Affecting the IRI of Asphalt Overlays, Proceedings of 93rd Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[25] FHWA. (2009). LongTerm Pavement Performance Information Management System: Pavement Performance Database User Reference Guide, Publication No. FHWARD03088, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.##[26] Solatifar, N., Behnia, C. and Aflaki, S. (2011). A Review to Experiences of Different Countries in Implementing LongTerm Pavement Performance (LTPP) Program, Proceedings of 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan, Iran.##[27] Nassiri, S., Shafiee, M. H. and Bayat, A. (2013). Development of Roughness Models Using Alberta Transportation’s Pavement Management System, Proceedings of 92nd Annual Meeting of TRB, Washington, D.C.##[28] FHWA. (2009). LongTerm Pavement Performance (LTPP) Standard Data Release 23.0., Federal Highway Administration, <http://www.ltppproducts.com> (May. 19, 2011).##[29] Lee, D., Derrible, S. and Pereira, F. C. (2018). Comparison of Four Types of Artificial Neural Network and a Multinomial Logit Model for Travel Mode Choice Modeling, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2672(49), 101112.##[30] Xu, LN. (2003). Artificial Neural Network Control, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, pp. 2741.##]
Investigating the Effect of AC Overlays Reinforced with Geogrid and Modified by Sasobit on Rehabilitation of Reflective Cracking
2
2
In this paper, the effect of asphalt overlays, which were reinforced with geogrid, modified by sasobit and combination of them on rehabilitation of reflective cracking, is studied. The laboratory tests were conducted under dynamic loading in bending mode to investigate reflective cracking retardation compared to reference samples. The results illustrated that in a certain range of variables, temperature variations and sasobit percentages are the most effective parameters on fatigue life and other responses. Another effective variable was the type of interlayer in asphalt slabs. Furthermore, it has been found that the combination of samples (modified by sasobit ,reinforced with geogrid and a 3cm sand asphalt layer) (1SP.G.SA & 2SP.G.SA) had a better performance such as improving fatigue life and reducing crack propagation in all loading and temperature conditions compared to the reference samples. Based on the image processing results, the process and shape of crack growth vary greatly at different temperatures. Generally, at low temperatures (20 °C) and frequencies the cracks grow from bottom to top and the width of them get smaller. However, with increasing the temperature and loading frequency, the top down cracks are also observed, which is due to the reduced resistance of the asphalt resulting from the reduction of adhesion and the fastening between the aggregate and bitumen.
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133
148


Gholamali
Shafabakhsh
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University
Iran
ghshafabakhsh@semnan.ac.ir


Saeid
Asadi
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, I. R. Iran
Iran
saeid.asadi@semnan.ac.ir
Reflective cracking
asphalt overlay
geogrid
sasobit
Loading frequency
Crack Propagation
Sand Asphalt
combination sample
Improvement Index
[[1] Moghaddas Nejad F, Asadi S, Fallah S, and Vadood M, (2016) “Statisticalexperimental study of geosynthetics performance on reflection cracking phenomenon,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 178–187.##[2] Li Y and Metcalf J.B, (2004) “Fatigue Characteristics of Asphalt Concrete from Asphalt Slab Tests,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 306–314.##[3] Shenoy A, (2001) “Determination of the Temperature for Mixing Aggregates with PolymerModified Asphalts,” Int. J. Pavement Eng., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–47.##[4] West R.C, Watson D.E, Turner P.A, and Casola J.R, (2010) “Mixing and compaction temperatures of asphalt binders in hotmix asphalt,” Transportation Research Board.##[5] Xiao F, Wenbin Zhao F.B, and Amirkhanian S.N, (2009) “Fatigue behavior of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing warm asphalt additives,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 3144–3151.##[6] Ziari H, Babagoli F, and Akbari A, (2015) “Investigation of fatigue and rutting performance of hot mix asphalt mixtures prepared by bentonitemodified bitumen,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 101–118.##[7] Behroozikhah A, Morafa S.H, and Aflaki S, (2017) “Investigation of fatigue cracks on RAP mixtures containing Sasobit and crumb rubber based on fracture energy,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 141, pp. 526–532.##[8] Scarpas A, De Bondt A.H, Molenaar A, and Gaarkeuken G, (1996) Finite elements modelling of cracking in pavements.##[9] Zhang Y, Luo X, Luo R, and Lytton R.L, (2014) “Crack initiation in asphalt mixtures under external compressive loads,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 72, pp. 94–103.##[10] Cleveland G, Button J, and Lytton R, (2003) Geosynthetics in flexible and rigid pavement overlay systems to reduce reflection cracking.##[11] Li Y and Metcalf J.B, (2004) “Fatigue Characteristics of Asphalt Concrete from Asphalt Slab Tests,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 306–314.##[12] Lytton R, (1989) “Use of geotextiles for reinforcement and strain relief in asphalt concrete,” Geotext. Geomembranes.##[13] Amini F, (2005) “Potential applications of paving fabrics to reduce reflective cracking.,”.##[14] Grabowski W and Pozarycki A, (2008) “Energy absorption in large dimension asphalt pavement samples reinforced with geosynthetics,” Found. Civ. enviromental Eng.##[15] Canestrari F, (2018) “Advanced Interface Testing of Grids in Asphalt Pavements,” Springer, Cham, pp. 127–202.##[16] Kim J and Buttlar W.G, (2002) “Analysis of Reflective Crack Control System Involving Reinforcing Grid over BaseIsolating Interlayer Mixture,” J. Transp. Eng., vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 375–384, Jul.##[17] Fallah S and Khodaii A, (2015) “Evaluation of parameters affecting reflection cracking in geogridreinforced overlay,” J. Cent. South Univ., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1016–1025.##[18] Khodaii A, Fallah S, (2009), “Effects of geosynthetics on reduction of reflection cracking in asphalt overlays,” Geotext. Geomembranes.##[19] ZamoraBarraza D, CalzadaPérez M.A, CastroFresno D, and VegaZamanillo A, (2011) “Evaluation of antireflective cracking systems using geosynthetics in the interlayer zone,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 130–136.##[20] Xu Y, Williams D J, and Serati M, (2018) “Investigation of shear strength of interface between roadbase and geosynthetics using largescale singlestage and multistage direct shear test,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., pp. 1–24.##[21] Ling J, Wei F, Gao J, Zhang J, Tian Y, and Li Y, (2019) “New Test Method for Measuring Reflective Cracking in HotMix Asphalt Overlay Pavements,” Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, p. 036119811984104.##[22] GonzalezTorre I, CalzadaPerez M A, VegaZamanillo A, and CastroFresno D, (2014) “Damage evaluation during installation of geosynthetics used in asphalt pavements,” Geosynth. Int., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 377–386.##[23] NorambuenaContreras J, GonzalezTorre I, FernandezArnau D, and LopezRiveros C, (2016) “Mechanical damage evaluation of geosynthetics fibres used as antireflective cracking systems in asphalt pavements,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 109, pp. 47–54.##[24] Noory A, Moghadas Nejad F, and Khodaii A, (2019) “Evaluation of geocompositereinforced bituminous pavements with Amirkabir University Shear Field Test,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 259–279.##[25] Volpi F, (2017) “A capacitancebased solution to monitor absolute crack length in fourpoint bending test: Modelling and experiments,” Sensors Actuators, A Phys., vol. 254, pp. 145–151.##[26] NorambuenaContreras J and GonzalezTorre I, (2015) “Influence of geosynthetic type on retarding cracking in asphalt pavements,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 78, pp. 421–429.##[27] Noory A, Nejad F.M, and Khodaii A, (2018) “Effective parameters on interface failure in a geocomposite reinforced multilayered asphalt system,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1458–1475, Aug.##[28] Ogundipe O, Thom N, and Collop A, (2013) “Investigation of crack resistance potential of stress absorbing membrane interlayers (SAMIs) under traffic loading,” Constr. Build. Mater..##[29] Pasetto M, Pasquini E, Giacomello G, and Baliello A, (2019) “Innovative composite materials as reinforcing interlayer systems for asphalt pavements: an experimental study,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., pp. 1–15.##[30] Saride S and Kumar V, (2019) “Reflection Crack Assessment Using Digital Image Analysis,” Springer, Singapore, pp. 139–156.##[31] Zornberg J G, (2017) “Functions and Applications of Geosynthetics in Roadways,” Procedia Eng., vol. 189, no. May, pp. 298–306,.##[32] Zofka A, Maliszewski M, and Maliszewska D, (2016) “Glass and carbon geogrid reinforcement of asphalt mixtures,” Asph. Paving Technol. Assoc. Asph. Paving Technol. Tech. Sess., vol. 85, no. 0, pp. 717–744.##[33] Saride S and Kumar V, (2017) “Geotextiles and Geomembranes In fl uence of geosyntheticinterlayers on the performance of asphalt overlays on precracked pavements,” Geotext. Geomembranes, pp. 1–13.##[34] Sachs S, Vandenbossche J.M, Alland K, Desantis J, and Khazanovich L, (2016) “Effects of Interlayer Systems on Reflective Cracking in Unbonded Overlays of Existing Concrete Pavements,” J. Transp. Res. Board.##[35] Habbouche J, Hajj E Y, Morian N E, and Sebaaly P E, (2017) “Reflective cracking relief interlayer for asphalt pavement rehabilitation : from development to demonstration,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–28.##[36] Sobhan K and Tandon V, (2008) “Mitigating Reflection Cracking in Asphalt Overlays using Geosynthetic Reinforcements,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 367–387.##[37] Khodaii A, Fallah S, and Moghadas Nejad F, (2009) “Effects of geosynthetics on reduction of reflection cracking in asphalt overlays,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–8.##[38] Oelkers C, (2017) “The versatile additive for asphalt mixes  Sasobit,”.##[39] Dizaj A B, Ziari H, and Nejhad M A, (2014) “Effects of Carbon Fibre Geogrid Reinforcement on Propagation of Cracking in Pavement and Augmentation of Flexible Pavement Life,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 891–892, pp. 1533–1538.##]
Damage Detection of Bridge by RayleighRitz Method
2
2
As a result of environmental and accidental actions, damage occurs in structures. The early detection of any defect can be achieved by regular inspection and condition assessment. In this way, the safety and reliability of structures can be increased. This paper is devoted to propose a new and effective method for detecting, locating, and quantifying beamlike structures. This method is based on RayleighRitz approach and requires a few numbers of natural frequencies and mode shapes associated with the undamaged and damaged states of the structure. The great advantage of the proposed approach against the other methods is that it considers all kinds of boundary and damping effects. To detect damage using the penalty method, this article considers lumped rotational and translational springs for determining the boundary conditions. Result will show that the proposed method is an effective and reliable tool for damage detection, localization, and quantification in the beamlike structures with different boundary conditions even when the modal data are contaminated by noise.
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149
162


Mohammad Hasan
Daneshvar
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
hasan.daneshvar@mail.um.ac.ir


Alireza
Gharighoran
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transportation, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
a.gharighoran@trn.ui.ac.ir


Seyed Alireza
Zareei
Department of Civil Engineering, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
a.r.zareei@khuisf.ac.ir


Abbas
Karamodin
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Iran
Iran
akaram@um.ac.ir
Damage Detection
RayleighRitz
Mode shapes
natural frequency
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