2016
4
2
8
108
Characteristics of Horizontal and Vertical NearField Ground Motions and Investigation of Their Effects on the Dynamic Response of Bridges
2
2
Recently, concerning failure of structures due to earthquakes, special investigations of near fault ground motions have been noticed. Hence, in this paper, characteristics of near field ground motions have been considered in horizontal and vertical directions. In this consideration, the record averages have been compared with Uniform Building Code and Eurocode8 spectra in two levels. In addition, the ratio of vertical to horizontal spectra has been computed and compared with the assumed value of two thirds in some code provisions. Finally, the response of near field records on five artificial bridges that have covered all 0.52.5 seconds periods, have been investigated for comparing the ratio of responses in near field to far field, and forward to backward directivity effects. In addition, the results of the response spectrum analyses of six different bridges subjected to vertical excitations are presented.
1

1
24


Mohammad Mahdi
Memarpour
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
memarpour@iust.ac.ir


Gholamreza
Ghodrati Amiri
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir


Hamid Reza
Razeghi
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran
Iran
razeghi@iust.ac.ir


Masoud
Akbarzadeh
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran
Iran
masouda@mit.edu


Alireza
Tajik Davoudi
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran
Iran
a_tajik@civileng.iust.ac.ir
Horizontal spectrum
Vertical spectrum
Near field
Forward directivity effect, Filing step, UBC 97, Eurocode 8
[[1] Abrahamson, N. (2001). “Incorporating Effects of Near Fault Tectonic Deformation into Design Ground Motions”, a presentation sponsored by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Visiting Professional Program, hosted by State University of New York at Buffalo, 26 Oct. 2001. Available at http://mceer.buffalo.edu/outreach/pr/abrahamson.asp##[2] Ambarseyes, N. N., Douglas, J. (2000). “Reappraisal of the Effect of Vertical Ground Motions on Response”. Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, ESEE, Report No. 004, Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine.##[3] Ambarseyes, N. N., Simpson, K. A. (1996). “Prediction of vertical response spectra in Europe”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 25(4), pp. 401412.##[4] American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO), (1992). Standard specifications for highway bridges, www.aashto.org.##[5] Boore, D. M., Joyner, W. B. and Fumal, T. E. (1997). “Equations for estimating horizontal response spectra and peak acceleration from western North American earthquakes: A summary of recent work”. Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 68(1), pp. 128153. ##[6] Bozorgnia, Y. Niazi, M. (1993). “Distance scaling of vertical and horizontal response spectra of the Loma Prieta earthquake”, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 22(8), pp. 695707.##[7] Bozorgnia, Y., Niazi, M., Campbell, K. W. (1995). “Characteristic of freefield vertical ground motion during the Northridge earthquake”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 11(4), pp. 515525.##[8] Elgamal, A., He, L. (2004). “Vertical earthquake ground motion records: An overview”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 5(8), pp. 663697.##[9] European Standard (2001), Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, DRAFT No 4, Final Project Team Draft (Stage 34), prEN 19981: 200X, 119.##[10] Foutch, A. D., (1997). “A note on the occurrence and effects of vertical earthquake ground motion,” Proceedings of the FHWA/NCEER Workshop on the National Representation of Seismic Ground Motion for New and Existing Highway Facilities, Technical Report NCEER970010.##[11] Frankel, A. D., Meuller, C., Barnhard, T., Leyendecker, E., Wesson, R., Harmsen, A., Klein, F., Perkins, D., Dickman, N., Hanson, S., (2000). “USGS national seismic hazard maps”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 16(1), pp. 119.##[12] Hall, J. F., Heaton, T. H., Halling, M. W., and Wald, D. J., (1995). “Nearsource ground motions and effects on flexible buildings”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 11(4), pp. 569605.##[13] Heaton, T. H., Hall, J. F., Wald, D. J., Halling, M. W. (1995). “Response of highrise and baseisolated buildings to a hypothetical Mw 7.0 blind thrust earthquake”. Science, Vol. 267 (13), pp. 206211.##[14] Kircher, C.A. (2003). “Development of Seismic Design Criteria for Building Codes”. Kircher & Associates, Palo Alto, CA.##[15] Kalkan, E., Adalier, K., Pamuk, A., (2004). “Near field effects and engineering implications of recent earthquakes in Turkey”. Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, New York, NY, April 1317, Paper No. 330.##[16] Mavroeidis, G. P., and Papageorgiou, A. S., (2003). “A mathematical expression of Nearfault ground motions”. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 (3), pp. 10991131.##[17] Memarpour, M.M. (2005). “Investigation of failure reasons of bridges in recent earthquakes.” M.Sc. Thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)##[18] Newmark, N. M., Blume J. A., Kapur K. K., (1973). “Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants”. Journal of the Power Division, Vol.99, pp. 287303.##[19] Pacific Earthquake Engineering StrongMotion Databases. Available at: http://peer.berkeley.edu/smact/index.html##[20] Priestly, MJ. N., Seible, F., Calvi G. M., (1996). “Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges”. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.##[21] SAP 2000. Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures, Version Advanced 10.01, 2005.##[22] SeismoSignal. SeismoSoft, Version 3.1.0, 2006.##[23] Silva, W. J. (1997). “Characteristics of vertical ground motions for applications to engineering design” Proceedings of the FHWA/NCEER Workshop on the National Representation of Seismic Ground Motion for New and Existing Highway Facilities, Technical Report NCEER970010.##[24] Somerville, P. G., (1998). ”Development of an improved representation of nearfault ground motions” SMIP98, Proceedings, Seminar on Utilization of StrongMotion Data, Oakland, CA, Sept. 15, California Division of Mines and Geology, Sacramento, CA, pp. 120.##[25] Somerville, P. G., Smith, N., Graves, R., Abrahamson, N., (1997). ”Modification of empirical strong motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture directivity”. Seismol, Res. Lett. Vol. 68, pp. 180203.##[26] Uniform Building Code (UBC). (1997) International Conference of Building Officials, Structural Design Provisions.##[27] United States Geological Survey (USGS). https://www.usgs.gov/##]
MultiDamage Detection for Steel Beam Structure
2
2
Damage detection has been focused by researchers because of its importance in engineering practices. Therefore, different approaches have been presented to detect damage location in structures. However, the higher the accuracy of methods is required the more complex deliberations. Based on the conventional studies, it was observed that the damage locations and its size are associated with dynamic parameters of the structures. The main objective of this research is to present a sophisticated approach to detect the damage location using multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) along with modified multiobjective genetic algorithm (MMOGA). In this approach natural frequencies are considered as the main dynamic parameters to detect the damage. The finite element method (FEM) is utilized to validate the accuracy of the results extracted from the natural frequencies analysis with consideration of the beams with different support conditions. Accordingly the results emphasize the high accuracy of the proposed method with the maximum error of 5%.
1

25
44


Reza
Farokhzad
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
r.farokhzad@qiau.ac.ir


Gholamreza
Ghodrati Amiri
Professor, Center of Excellent for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir


Benyamin
Mohebi
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
mohebi@eng.ikiu.ac.ir


Mohsen
GhaforyAshtiany
Professor, Structural Department, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ashtiany@iies.ac.ir
Damage Detection Exact Method
Cantilever beam
Multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA)
Modified multiobjective genetic algorithm (MMOGA)
[[1]. ASTMC138304, A., Standard test method for measuring the PWave speed and the thickness of concrete plates using the impactecho method. 2010, American Society for Testing And Materials (ASTM) USA.##[2]. ASTM, C., Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, American Society of Testing Material, 2009.##[3]. AmezquitaSanchez, J.P. and H. Adeli, Signal processing techniques for vibrationbased health monitoring of smart structures. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 2016. 23(1): p. 115.##[4]. Zhao, B., et al., Structural Damage Detection by Using Single Natural Frequency and the Corresponding Mode Shape. Shock and Vibration, 2016. 2016.##[5]. Goldfeld, Y. and D. Elias, Using the exact element method and modal frequency changes to identify distributed damage in beams. Engineering Structures, 2013. 51: p. 6072.##[6]. Perera, R., R. Marin, and A. Ruiz, Static–dynamic multiscale structural damage identification in a multiobjective framework. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2013. 332(6): p. 14841500.##[7]. Mehrjoo, M., N. Khaji, and M. GhaforyAshtiany, Application of genetic algorithm in crack detection of beamlike structures using a new cracked Euler–Bernoulli beam element. Applied Soft Computing, 2013. 13(2): p. 867880.##[8]. Moradi, S., P. Razi, and L. Fatahi, On the application of bees algorithm to the problem of crack detection of beamtype structures. Computers & Structures, 2011. 89(23): p. 21692175.##[9]. Zang, C. and M. Imregun, Structural damage detection using artificial neural networks and measured FRF data reduced via principal component projection. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2001. 242(5): p. 813827.##[10].Meruane, V. and W. Heylen, An hybrid real genetic algorithm to detect structural damage using modal properties. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2011. 25(5): p. 15591573.##[11]. Ghasemi, S.H. and P. Ashtari, Combinatorial continuous nonstationary critical excitation in MDOF structures using multipeak envelope functions. Earthquakes and Structures, 2014. 7(6): p. 895908.##[12].Farokhzad Reza, M.B., Ghodrati Amiri Gholamreza, GhaforyAshtiany Mohsen, Detecting structural damage in Timoshenko beams based on optimization via simulation (OVS). Journal of Vibroengineering, 2016. 18(8): p. 50745095.##[13].Altammar, H., S. Kaul, and A. Dhingra. Use of Frequency Response for Damage Detection: An Optimization Approach. in ASME 2016 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. 2016. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.##[14].Hjelmstad, K. and S. Shin, Crack identification in a cantilever beam from modal response. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1996. 198(5): p. 527545.##[15].Ghasemi, S.H., et al., Stateoftheart model to evaluate space headway based on reliability analysis. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2016: p. 04016023.##[16]. Koh, B., J. Choi, and M. Jeong. Damage Detection through Genetic and SwarmBased Optimization Algorithms. in International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments. International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments. 2010.##[17].Law, S., Z. Shi, and L. Zhang, Structural damage detection from incomplete and noisy modal test data. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1998. 124(11): p. 12801288.##[18].Weaver Jr, W., S.P. Timoshenko, and D.H. Young, Vibration problems in engineering. 1990: John Wiley & Sons.##[19].Tada, H., P. Paris, and G. Irwin, The analysis of cracks handbook. 2000: New York: ASME Press.##[20].Petyt, M., Introduction to finite element vibration analysis. 2010: Cambridge university press.##[21].Khaji, N., M. Shafiei, and M. Jalalpour, Closedform solutions for crack detection problem of Timoshenko beams with various boundary conditions. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2009. 51(9): p. 667681.##[22].Ostachowicz, W. and M. Krawczuk, Analysis of the effect of cracks on the natural frequencies of a cantilever beam. Journal of sound and vibration, 1991. 150(2): p. 191201.##]
Modifying PIARC’s Linear Model of Accident Severity Index to Identify Roads' Accident Prone Spots to Rehabilitate Pavements Considering Nonlinear Effects of the Traffic Volume
2
2
Pavement rehabilitation could affect the accident severity index (ASI) since restoration measures means more safety for road users. No research or project has been carried out to identify hazard points to build a linear model based on crash severity index. One of the very popular accident severity index models used in all countries is based on linear models to rehabilitate pavements and this paper is aiming at correcting the deficiency of PIARC’s related model i.e. lack of sensitivity to changes in the traffic volume flow, to modify crash severity index (which is based on linear models) making an allowance for the nonlinear effects of traffic on eventful locations on dual carriageways. To do so, traffic volume has been chosen as the hazard criteria and, using multiple regression and statistical models, the coefficients and variables of the new model have been calculated by means of the SPSS software. This study presents the structural defects for the correction of linear models based on the accident severity (sensitive to changes in traffic volume). This research provides a linear model based on the crash severity index considering the nonlinear effects of the traffic volume to identify roads main eventful locations. Recommended that the model for a comprehensive database of accident data be built for all other roads in order to enhance the research accuracy.
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45
51


Mohammad
Soleymani Kermani
Member of Scientific Board of Road, Housing and Urban Development Centre (BHRC)
Iran
rezakermani@hotmail.com


Amir
Namazian Jam
Department of Civil Engineering, Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
namazian@hotmail.com
Hazardous points
Accident severity index
Regression models
SPSS software
[[1] Gourav Grewal, R. Bansal, V.K. Ahuja, (2015) “Study On Accident Severity Index, Time Of Accident And Vehicle Involved In Accident In Hisar City” International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, ISSN: 23197463.##[2] Vivek V. Khanzodea, J. Maitib, P.K. Rayb (2012) “Occupational injury and accident research” A comprehensive review, ELSEVIER, , Pages 1355–1367.##[3] PIARC Road Safety Manual, (20112020) A manual for practitioners and decision makers on implementing safe system infrastructure, United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety,##[4] Matthew G Karlaftis , Ioannis Golias (2002) “Effects of road geometry and traffic volumes on rural roadway accident rates”, ELSEVIER, Volume 34, Issue 3, May, Pages 357–365.##[5] Police Manual of Research and Information Technology (2011), (in Persian), Tehran and Mazandaran province.##[6] Mirzadeh, M. R., (2009), (in Persian), “The SPSS Statistical Analysis Software ", Taymaz Publishing, Printing Co.##[7] Rezaee Arjrudy. AR, Shabani, S (2007), (in Persian), Methods of Identification and Recording Accidentprone Sites, a Publication of Transportation Research Institute (TRI).##[8] Cerny, C.A., & Kaiser, H.F. (1977). A study of a measure of sampling adequacy for factoranalytic correlation matrices. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 12(1), 4347.##[9] Kenneth J. White, “The DurbinWatson (1992) Test for Autocorrelation in Nonlinear Models” Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 370373, Published by: The MIT Press,##[10] Steven L. Wise, (1990) Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression by Olive Jean Dunn, Virginia A. Clark, Journal of Educational Statistics, Vol. 15, No. , pp. 175178.##]
Effect of Organic and Inorganic Matrix on the Behavior of FRPWrapped Concrete Cylinders
2
2
There is an increased use of fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) in a wide area of engineering fields for various reasons including, ease of transportation and installation, high strength to weight ratio and favorable durability in different conditions. On the other hand, the use of this material as confining shells has been an interesting matter for retrofit, strengthening and construction of quasistructural column systems. In this research, concrete cylinders with 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height were made, and effect of organic (epoxybased) and inorganic (cementitiousbased) matrices on strength behavior and ductility of cylinders wrapped in one and twoply carbon, basalt and glass fabrics were studied. Results show that compressive strength of wrapped cylinders was 1.11 to 2.42 times higher than unwrapped ones. Also, there was a considerable 10 times increase in cylinders’ ultimate strain. Effects of confinement upgrade (from one to twoply) were 3% to 26% increase for compressive strength and 17% to 41% for failure strain. Fabrics’ quantity performance was Carbon > Basalt > Glass.
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52
66


Ali
Sadrmomtazi
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
sadrmomtazi@yahoo.com


Masoud
Khabaznia
M.Sc., Structural Engineering, Campuses2, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
masoud.khabaznia@gmail.com


Behzad
Tahmouresi
M.Sc., Structural Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
behzad.tahmouresi@gmail.com
Fabric
Confinement
ductility
Organic matrix
Inorganic matrix
[[1] Richard, F.E., Brandtzaeg, A., Brown, R.L. (1928). “A study of the failure of concrete under combined compressive stresses”. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, College of Engineering. Engineering Experiment Station.##[2] Kheyroddin, A., Naderpour, H. and Ahmadi, M. (2014). “Compressive Strength of Confined Concrete in CCFST Columns”. Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2, NO. 1, pp.106113.##[3]. Fanggi, B.A.L., and Hadi, M.N. (2011). “The Behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Confined Concrete Cylinders under High Temperature Exposure”. Concrete Building a Sustainable Future, pp. 19.##[4]. Campione, G., La Mendola, L., Monaco, A., Valenza, A. and Fiore, V. (2015). “Behavior in compression of concrete cylinders externally wrapped with basalt fibers”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 69, pp.576586.##[5] Sadeghian, P., Fam, A. (2014). “A rational approach toward strain efficiency factor of fiberreinforced polymerwrapped concrete columns”. ACI Structural Journal. Vol. 111, No. 1, pp.135.##[6] Wu, G., Lü, Z.T., Wu, Z.S. (2006). “Strength and ductility of concrete cylinders confined with FRP composites”. Construction and building materials, Vol. 20, NO. 3, pp.134148.##[7] Karabinis, A.I., and Rousakis, T.C. (2001). “A model for the mechanical behaviour of the FRP confined columns”. In Proceedings of the International Conference on FRP Com‐posites in Civil Engineering, pp. 317326.##[8] Li, Y.F., Lin, C.T., and Sung, Y.Y. (2003). “A constitutive model for concrete confined with carbon fiber reinforced plastics”. Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 35, NO. 3, pp.603619.##[9] Ozbakkaloglu, T., and Saatcioglu, M. (2006). “Seismic behavior of highstrength concrete columns confined by fiberreinforced polymer tubes”. Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 538549.##[10] Abbasnia, R., Ahmadi, R., and Ziaadiny, H. (2012). “Effect of confinement level, aspect ratio and concrete strength on the cyclic stress–strain behavior of FRPconfined concrete prisms”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.825831.##[11] y Basalo, F.J.D.C., Matta, F., and Nanni, A. (2012). “Fiber reinforced cementbased composite system for concrete confinement”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 32, pp.5565.##[12] Seible, F., Priestley, M.N., Hegemier, G.A., and Innamorato, D. (1997). “Seismic retrofit of RC columns with continuous carbon fiber jackets”. Journal of composites for construction, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.5262.##[13] Matthys, S., Toutanji, H., and Taerwe, L. (2006). “Stress–strain behavior of largescale circular columns confined with FRP composites”. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 1, pp.123133.##[14] Karam, G., and Tabbara, M. (2005). “Confinement effectiveness in rectangular concrete columns with fiber reinforced polymer wraps”. Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp.388396.##[15] Shahawy, M., Mirmiran, A., and Beitelman, T. (2000). “Tests and modeling of carbonwrapped concrete columns”. Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp.471480.##[16] Lam, L., and Teng, J.G. (2003). “Designoriented stress–strain model for FRPconfined concrete”. Construction and building materials, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp.471489.##[17] Lim, J.C., and Ozbakkaloglu, T. (2014). “Influence of silica fume on stress–strain behavior of FRPconfined HSC”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 63, pp.1124.##[18] Berthet, J.F., Ferrier, E., and Hamelin, P., (2005). “Compressive behavior of concrete externally confined by composite jackets. Part A: experimental study”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.223232.##[19] Di Ludovico, M., Prota, A., and Manfredi, G. (2010). “Structural upgrade using basalt fibers for concrete confinement. Journal of composites for construction”. Vol. 14. No. 5,pp.541552.##[20] Triantafillou, T.C., Papanicolaou, C.G., Zissimopoulos, P., and Laourdekis, T. (2006). “Concrete confinement with textilereinforced mortar jackets”. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 103, No. 1, p.28.##[21] Kodur, V.K.R., and Bisby, L.A. (2005).” Evaluation of fire endurance of concrete slabs reinforced with fiberreinforced polymer bars”. Journal of structural engineering, Vol. 131, No. 1, pp.3443.##[22] Bisby, L.A., Green, M.F., and Kodur, V.K.R. (2005). “Modeling the behavior of fiber reinforced polymerconfined concrete columns exposed to fire”. Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.1524.##[23] Wang, Y.C., Wong, P.M.H., and Kodur, V.K.R. (2003). “Mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymer reinforcing bars at elevated temperatures”. SFPE/ASCE Specialty Conference: Designing Structures for Fire, Baltimore, MD., pp. 183192.##[24] Colajanni, P., De Domenico, F., Recupero, A., and Spinella, N. (2014). “Concrete columns confined with fibre reinforced cementitious mortars: experimentation and modelling”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 52, pp.375384.##[25] Reddy, D.V., Sobhan, K., and Young, J. (2006). “Effect of fire on structural elements retrofitted by carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites”. In 31st conference on our world in concrete & structures, pp. 1617.##[26] Trapko, T. (2013). “Fibre reinforced cementitious matrix confined concrete elements”. Materials & Design, 44, pp.382391.##[27] AlSalloum, Y.A., Elsanadedy, H.M., and Abadel, A.A. (2011). “Behavior of FRPconfined concrete after high temperature exposure”. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp.838850.##[28] Kurtz, S., and Balaguru, P. (2001). “Comparison of inorganic and organic matrices for strengthening of RC beams with carbon sheets”. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 1, pp.3542.##[29] Cree, D., Chowdhury, E.U., Green, M.F., Bisby, L.A., and Bénichou, N. (2012). “Performance in fire of FRPstrengthened and insulated reinforced concrete columns”. Fire safety journal, Vol. 54, pp.8695.##[30] Toutanji, H. (1999). “Stressstrain characteristics of concrete columns externally confined with advanced fiber composite sheets”. ACI materials journal, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp.397404.##[31] Teng, J.G., Jiang, T., Lam, L., and Luo, Y.Z. (2009). “Refinement of a designoriented stress–strain model for FRPconfined concrete”. Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.269278.##]
Embedded Crack Identification in BeamColumn Structures Under Axial Load Using an Efficient Static Data Based Indicator
2
2
A triangular model base on an investigation which has done by Sinha et al. has been developed for evaluating embedded crack localization in beamcolumn structures. In the assessment of this member’s behavior, the effects of displacement slope are necessary. In order to propose a crack localization method for embedded crack, an efficient static data based indicator is proposed for this crack in EulerBernoulli beamcolumns under axial load effect. A finite element procedure is implemented for calculating the Static responses. Then, base on a central finite difference method, the slope and curvatures of horizontal displacements are evaluated. For this purpose, a simply supported beamcolumn and a twospan beamcolumn are considered and two different scenarios base on the damage of one element (single damage) and multiple elements (multiple damages) by considering the noise have been assessed. The numerical results have shown that this crack localization method has considerable accurate.
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67
78


Omid
Yazdanpanah
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
omidyazdanpanah66@gmail.com


Ramezan Ali
Izadifard
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
izadifard@eng.ikiu.ac.ir


Mehrdad
Abdi Moghadam
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
m.abdimoghadam@gmail.com
Crack modeling
Embedded crack detection
Beamcolumn structure
Axial load
Static responses
[[1] Rytter, A. (1993), “Vibration Based Inspection of Civil Engineering Structures”. Ph.D. Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark.##[2] Cawley, P., Adams, R.D. (1979), “The location of defects in structures from measurements of natural frequency”, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol.14(2), pp.4957.##[3] Koh, B.H., Dyke, S.J. (2007), “Structural health monitoring for flexible bridge structures using correlation and sensitivity of modal data”, Computers & Structures, Vol.85(34), pp.117130.##[4] Messina, A., Jones, I.A., Williams, E.J. (1992), “Damage detection and localization using natural frequency changes”, Proceedings of the Conference on Identification in Engineering System, Cambridge, UK, Vol.1, pp.6776.##[5] Doebling, S.W., Farrar, C.R., Prime, M.B., Shevits, D.W. (1996), “Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review”, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, Vol.1, pp.1–136.##[6] Abdel Wahab, M.M., De Roeck, G. (1999), “Damage detection in bridges using modal curvatures: application to a real damage scenario”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.226(2), pp.217–235.##[7] RongSong He. RS., Hwang SF. (2007). “Damage detection by a hybrid realparameter genetic algorithm under the assistance of grey relation analysis”, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 20 (7), pp. 980–992.##[8] Yang, Y., Liu, H., Mosalam, K.M., Huang, S. (2013). “An improved direct stiffness calculation method for damage detection of beam structures”. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, Vol.20 (5), pp.835851.##[9] Nobahari, M., Seyedpoor, S.M. (2013), “An efficient method for structural damage localization based on the concepts of flexibility matrix and strain energy of a structure”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol.46(2), pp.231244.##[10] Pandey, A.K., Biswas, M. (1994), “Damage detection in structures using changes in flexibility”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.169(1), pp.3–17.##[10] Shih, H.W., Thambiratnam, D.P., Chan, T.H.T. (2009), “Vibration based structural damage detection in flexural members using multicriteria approach”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.323(35), pp.645–661.##[11] Seyedpoor, S.M., Montazer, M. (2013), “A damage identification method for truss structures using a flexibilitybased damage probability index and differential evolution algorithm”, Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, Vol.24(8), pp.13031322.##[12] Jaishi, B., Ren, W.X.. (2006). “Damage detection by finite element model updating using modal flexibility residual”. Journal of Sound and Vibration. Vol. 290, pp.369–387.##[13] Miguel, L.F.F., Miguel, L.F.F., Riera, J.D., Menezes, R.C.R. (2007). “Damage detection in truss structures using a flexibility based approach with noise influence consideration”. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol.27, pp.625–638.##[14] Li, J., Wu, B., Zeng, Q.C., Lim, C.W. (2010). “A generalized flexibility matrix based approach for structural damage detection”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.329, pp.4583–4587.##[15] Wang, Z., Lin, R., Lim, M. (1997). “Structural damage detection using measured FRF data”. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering,Vol.147, pp.187–197.##[16] Huang, Q., Xu, Y.L., Li, J.C., Su, Z.Q., Liu, H.J. (2012). “Structural damage detection of controlled building structures using frequency response functions”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 331, pp.3476–3492.##[17] Z. Wang, R. Lin, M. Lim (1997). “Structural damage detection using measured FRF data”. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol.147, pp.187–197.##[18] Spanos, P. D., Giuseppe F., Adolfo S., Massimiliano P. (2006). “Damage detection in Euler–Bernoulli beams via spatial wavelet analysis”, Structural Control and Health Monitoring, Vol.13(1), pp.472487.##[19] Naderpour H., Fakharian P. (2016). “A synthesis of peak picking method and wavelet packet transform for structural modal identification”. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 20 (7), pp. 2859–2867. doi:10.1007/s1220501605234.##[20] BakhtiariNejad, F., A. Rahai, Esfandiari, A. (2005). “A structural damage detection method using static noisy data”. Engineering Structures, Vol.27, pp.17841793.##[21] Caddemi, S., Morassi, A. (2007). “Crack detection in elastic beams by static measurements”. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol.44, pp.5301–5315.##[22] Abdo, M.A.B and Hori, M. (2002). “A numerical study of structural damage detection using changes in the rotation of mode shapes”. 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A New Approach for Numerical Analysis of the RC Shear Walls Based on Timoshenko Beam Theory Combined with BarConcrete Interaction
2
2
In this paper, a new approach for nonlinear numerical modelling of the reinforced concrete shear walls with consideration of barconcrete interaction and shear deformation is proposed. Bar and concrete stressstrain relations, the barconcrete interaction, the shear stressstrain relation and, also, their cyclic behavior including the strength degradation and stiffness degradation are adopted as known specifications. In the modeling, shear wall is divided into two types of joint and reinforced concrete (RC) elements. In the RC element, the effect of shear deformation is considered based on Timoshenko beam theory. Separate degrees of freedom are used for the steel bars and concrete part. The effect of barconcrete interaction has been considered in the formulation of the RC element. The reliability of the method has been assessed through the comparison of numerical and experimental results for a variety of tested specimens under cyclic and pushover loading. A good agreement between experimental and analytical results is obtained for both cases of strength and stiffness during the analysis.
1

79
92


Seyed Shaker
Hashemi
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, Bushehr, Iran, P.O. Box: 7516913817
Iran
sh.hashemi@pgu.ac.ir


Hamze
Zarei Chargoad
M.Sc. Graduated Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, Bushehr, Iran, P.O. Box: 7516913817
Iran
zareihamze@yahoo.com


Mohammad
Vaghefi
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, Bushehr, Iran, P.O. Box: 7516913817
Iran
vaghefi@pgu.ac.ir
nonlinear analysis
Timoshenko beam theory
BarConcrete interaction
Shear deformation
Reinforced concrete shear wall
[[1]. Orakcal, K., Massone, L.M., Wallace, J. W. (2006). “Analytical modelling of reinforced concrete walls for predicting flexural and coupled shearflexural responses”. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Los Angeles PEER Report.##[2]. Massone, L.M., Wallace, J.W. (2004). “Loaddeformation responses of slender reinforced concrete walls”. ACI Structural Journal, 101(1):103–113.##[3]. Galal, K., ElSokkary, H. (2008). “Advancement in modelling of RC shear walls”. Proceedings, 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.##[4]. Hashemi, S.SH., Tasnimi, A.A., Soltani, M. (2009). “Nonlinear cyclic analysis of reinforced concrete frames, utilizing new joint element”. Journal of Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 4901501.##[5]. Mullapudi, T.R.S., Ayoub, A.S, Belarbi, A. (2008). “A fiber beam element with axial, bending and shear interaction for seismic analysis of RC structures”. 14WCEE 2008, the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, Oct 12 17.## [6]. Stramandinoli, R.S.B., La Rovere, H.L. (2012). “FE model for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beams considering shear deformation”. Engineering Structures. Vol. 35, pp. 244253.##[7]. Monti, G., Spacone, E. (2000). “Reinforced concrete fiber beam element with bondslip”. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 6, pp. 654661.##[8]. Kotronis, P., Ragueneau, F., Mazars, J.A. (2005). “Simplified model strategy for R/C walls satisfying PS92 and EC8 design”. Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 11971208.##[9]. Belmouden, Y., Lestuzzi, P. (2007). “Analytical model for predicting nonlinear reversed cyclic behaviour of reinforced concrete structural walls”. Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 12631276.##[10]. Orakçal, K., Chowdhury, S.R. (2012). “Bond slip modeling of reinforced concrete columns with deficient lap splices”. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, September.##[11]. Hashemi, S.SH., Vaghefi, M. (2012). “Investigation of the effect of a bar’s inadequate embedded length on the PM interaction curve of reinforced concrete columns with rectangular sections”. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 109119.##[12]. Hashemi, S.SH., Vaghefi, M. (2015). “Investigation of bond slip effect on the PM interaction surface of rc columns under biaxial bending”. Journal of Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 388399.##[13]. Hashemi, S.SH., Vaghefi, M., Hemmat, M. (2017). “Evaluation the effects of stirrup spacing and buckling of steel reinforcing bars on the capacity of RC columns”. Journal of Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, (In press).##[14]. Limkatanyu, S., Spacone, E. (2002). “Reinforced concrete frame element with bond interfaces. Part I: displacementbased, forcebased, and mixed formulations”. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 3, pp. 346355.##[15]. Kwon, Y.W., Bang, H. (2000). “The finite element method using MATLAB”. Second edition, CRC press LCC publisher, USA.##[16]. Gruttmann, F., Wagner, W. (2001). “Shear correction factors in Timoshenko's beam theory for arbitrary shaped cross sections”. Computational Mechanics, Vol. 27, pp. 199207.##[17]. MathWorks, MATLAB. (2010). “The language of technical computing”. Version 7.11.0. (R2010a).##[18]. Park, R., Kent, D.C., Sampton, R.A. (1972). “Reinforced concrete members with cyclic loading”. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 98, No. 7, pp. 13411360.##[19]. Scott, B.D., Park, R., Priestley, M.J.N. (1982). “Stressstrain behaviour of concrete confined by overlapping hoops at low and high strain rates”. ACI Journal, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 1327.##[20]. Welch, G.B., Haisman, B. (1969). “Fracture toughness measurements of concrete”. Report no. R42, Sydney: University of New South Wales.##[21]. Karsan, ID., Jirsa, J.O. (1969). “Behavior of concrete under compressive loading”. Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. 12, pp. 25432563.##[22]. Kwak, H.G., Kim, S.P. (2002). “Cyclic momentcurvature relation of an RC beam”. Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 435447.##[23]. Giuffre, A., Pinto, P.E. (1970). “Il comportamento del cemento armato per sollecitazzioni cicliche di forte intensita”. Giornale del Genio Civile, Maggio, (in Italian).##[24]. Menegoto, M., Pinto, P. (1973). “Method of analysis for cyclically loaded RC plane frames including changes in geometry and nonelastic behaviour of elements under combined normal force and bending”. Symp. Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, IABSE Reports, Vol. 13, Lisbon.##[25]. Filippou, F.C., Popov, E., Bertero, V. (1983). “Effect of bond deterioration on hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete joints”. Report No. EERC 8319, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.##[26]. Gomes, A., Appleton, J. (1997). “Nonlinear cyclic stressstrain relationship of reinforcing bars including buckling, engineering structures”. Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 822–826.##[27]. Eligehausen, R., Popov, E., Bertero, V. (1983). “Local bond stressslip relationship of deformed bars under generalized excitations”. Report UCB/EERC83/23, Earthquake Engineering Center, University of California, Berkeley.##[28]. Gan, Y. (2000). “Bond stress and slip modeling in nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures”. A Thesis Submitted for Degree of Master of Applied Science Graduate, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto.##[29]. Anderson, M., Lehman, D., Stanton, J. (2008). “A cyclic shear stress strain model for joints without transverse reinforcement”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, pp. 941954.##[30]. Dazio, A. Beyer, K., Bachmann H. (2009). “Quasi static cyclic tests and plastic hinge analysis of RC structural walls”. Engineering Structures, Vol. 31, pp. 15561571.##[31]. Lefas, ID. Kotsovos, MD., Ambraseys, N.N. (1990). “Behavior of reinforced concrete structural walls: Strength, Deformation Vharacteristics, and Failure Mechanism”. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 2331.##]
Modeling of Dynamic Behavior and Estimation of Damage Incurred by SelfCentering Rocking Walls
2
2
Selfcentering rocking walls are known as viable alternatives to typical shear walls, as they provide a number of solutions for eliminating seismic flaws of conventional designs. These rocking walls have a generally positive impact on the seismic behavior of structural systems, but their design makes them susceptible to concrete crushing around their base, which can lead to significantly adverse effects on their seismic performance. This paper first models the dynamic behavior of these walls under cyclic loading and then uses a new approach to estimate the extent and quality of damage incurred by the wall at element level. The damage index used for this purpose acts as a quantitative scale measuring the quality of damage incurred by the concrete and therefore gauging the status of the wall. This paper uses the PERFORM 3D software for the procedure of modeling and damage estimation. To assess the accuracy of the modeling technique, results of numerical analyses are compared with the results of a fullscale load test. The quantitated damage incurred by the wall is then plotted for its surface and these damages are then compared with the actual results obtained from the test. The results indicate that the technique used by this paper to model the dynamic behavior of these walls can accurately simulate their behavior. Also, the damage index used in this paper provides an adequately accurate estimate of the damages incurred by this type of walls.
1

93
108


Abouzar
Jafari
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Iran
a_jafari@pgs.usb.ac.ir


Mohamad Reza
Ghasemi
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Iran
mrghasemi@hamoon.usb.ac.ir


Habib
Akbarzadeh Bengar
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Iran
h.akbarzadeh@umz.ac.ir


Behrooz
Hassani
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
b_hassani@um.ac.ir
SelfCentering rocking walls
Damage Index
PostTensioning tendons
Modeling of nonlinear behavior
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(1998). “Seismic design and response evaluation of unbounded posttensioned precast concrete walls.” Earthquake engineering research report, Lehigh University, Lehigh.##[13] Pampanin, S. (2005). “Emerging solutions for high seismic performance of precast/prestressed concrete buildings.” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology 3(2), 207223.##[14] Mander, JB., Cheng, CT. (1997). “Seismic resistance of bridge piers based on damage avoidance design.” Technical, Buffalo.##[15] Shen, Q., kurama, YC. (2002). “Nonlinear behavior of posttensioned hybrid coupled wall sub assemblages.” Journal of Structural Engineering 128(10), 12901300.##[16] Twigden, KM., Sritharan, R, Henry, RS. (2017). “Cyclic testing of unbonded posttensioned concrete wall systems with and without supplemental damping.” Engineering Structures 140, 406420##[17] Boroschek, RL., Yanez, FV. (2000). “Experimental verification of basic analytical assumptions used in the analysis of structural wall buildings.” Engineering Structures 22(6), 657669.##[18] Riva, P., Meda, A., Giuriani, E. (2003). “Cyclic behavior of a full scale RC structural wall.” Engineering Structures 25(6), 835–845.##[19] Preti, M., Giuriani , E. (2007). “Preliminary results on a full scale experiment on seismic rocking structural walls.” In : Third Central European Congress on Concrete Engineering, Visegrad, Hungary.##[20] Preti, M., Giuriani, E. (2007). “A Full Scale Test on the Structural Wall Ductility under Cyclic Loading.” Technical, Brescia.##[21] Preti, M., Giuriani, E. (2012). “Full Scale Experimental Investigation on Seismic Structural Walls.” In : Fifteenth world conference on earthquake engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.##[22] Preti, M., Meda, A. (2015). “RC structural wall with unbounded tendons strengthened with highperformance fiberreinforced concrete.” Materials and Structures 48(1), 249–260.##[23] Yooprasertchai, E., Warnitchai, P., Hadiwijaya, I. J. (2016). “Seismic performance of precast concrete rocking walls with buckling restrained braces.” Magazine of Concrete Research 68(9), 462–476.##[24] Henry, RS., Sritharan, S., Ingham,. M. (2016). “Residual drift analyses of realistic selfcentering concrete wall systems.” Earthquakes and Structures 10(2), 409428.##[25] Hassanli, R., ElGawady, MA., Mills, JE. (2016). “Force–displacement behavior of unbounded posttensioned concrete walls.” Engineering Structures 106(1), 495–505.##[26] Stone, WC., Taylor, AW. (1993). “Seismic performance of circular bridge column designed in accordance with AASHTO/CALTRANS standards.”, Gaithersburg, Md.##[27] Williams, MS., Villemure, I., Sexsmith, RG. (1997). “Evaluation of seismic damage indices for concrete elements loaded in combined shear and flexure.” ACI Structural Journal 94(3), 315–322.##[28] Hindi, RA., Sexsmith, RG. (2001). “A proposed damage model for RC bridge columns under cyclic loading.” Earthquake Spectra 17(2), 261–290.##[29] Kim, TH., Lee, KM., Chung, YS., Shin, HM. (2005). “Seismic damage assessment of reinforced concrete bridge columns.” Engineering Structures 27(4), 576–592.##[30] Preti, M., Marini, A., Metelli, G., Giuriani, E. (2009). “Full Scale Experimental Investigation on a Prestressed Rocking Structural Wall with Unbonded Steel Dowels as Shear Keys.” In : 13th Conference ANIDIS on Earthquake Engineering, Bologna, Italy.##[31] Computers & Structures, I. (2006). “PERFORM Components and Elements for PERFORM3D and PERFORMCOLLAPSE.” University Ave, Berkeley, USA.##[32] Kappos, A. 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