Investigating the Effect of AC Overlays Reinforced with Geogrid and Modified by Sasobit on Rehabilitation of Reflective Cracking

Document Type: Regular Paper


1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, I. R. Iran


In this paper, the effect of asphalt overlays, which were reinforced with geogrid, modified by sasobit and combination of them on rehabilitation of reflective cracking, is studied. The laboratory tests were conducted under dynamic loading in bending mode to investigate reflective cracking retardation compared to reference samples. The results illustrated that in a certain range of variables, temperature variations and sasobit percentages are the most effective parameters on fatigue life and other responses. Another effective variable was the type of interlayer in asphalt slabs. Furthermore, it has been found that the combination of samples (modified by sasobit ,reinforced with geogrid and a 3cm sand asphalt layer) (1SP.G.SA & 2SP.G.SA) had a better performance such as improving fatigue life and reducing crack propagation in all loading and temperature conditions compared to the reference samples. Based on the image processing results, the process and shape of crack growth vary greatly at different temperatures. Generally, at low temperatures (20 °C) and frequencies the cracks grow from bottom to top and the width of them get smaller. However, with increasing the temperature and loading frequency, the top down cracks are also observed, which is due to the reduced resistance of the asphalt resulting from the reduction of adhesion and the fastening between the aggregate and bitumen.


Main Subjects

[1]     Moghaddas Nejad F, Asadi S, Fallah S, and Vadood M, (2016) “Statistical-experimental study of geosynthetics performance on reflection cracking phenomenon,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 178–187.

[2]     Li Y and Metcalf J.B, (2004) “Fatigue Characteristics of Asphalt Concrete from Asphalt Slab Tests,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 306–314.

[3]     Shenoy A, (2001) “Determination of the Temperature for Mixing Aggregates with Polymer-Modified Asphalts,” Int. J. Pavement Eng., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–47.

[4]     West R.C, Watson D.E, Turner P.A, and Casola J.R, (2010) “Mixing and compaction temperatures of asphalt binders in hot-mix asphalt,” Transportation Research Board.

[5]     Xiao F, Wenbin Zhao F.B, and Amirkhanian S.N, (2009) “Fatigue behavior of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing warm asphalt additives,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 3144–3151.

[6]     Ziari H, Babagoli F, and Akbari A, (2015) “Investigation of fatigue and rutting performance of hot mix asphalt mixtures prepared by bentonite-modified bitumen,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 101–118.

[7]     Behroozikhah A, Morafa S.H, and Aflaki S, (2017) “Investigation of fatigue cracks on RAP mixtures containing Sasobit and crumb rubber based on fracture energy,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 141, pp. 526–532.

[8]     Scarpas A, De Bondt A.H, Molenaar A, and Gaarkeuken G, (1996) Finite elements modelling of cracking in pavements.

[9]     Zhang Y, Luo X, Luo R, and Lytton R.L, (2014) “Crack initiation in asphalt mixtures under external compressive loads,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 72, pp. 94–103.

[10]    Cleveland G, Button J, and Lytton R, (2003) Geosynthetics in flexible and rigid pavement overlay systems to reduce reflection cracking.

[11]    Li Y and Metcalf J.B, (2004) “Fatigue Characteristics of Asphalt Concrete from Asphalt Slab Tests,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 306–314.

[12]    Lytton R, (1989) “Use of geotextiles for reinforcement and strain relief in asphalt concrete,” Geotext. Geomembranes.

[13]    Amini F, (2005) “Potential applications of paving fabrics to reduce reflective cracking.,”.

[14]    Grabowski W and Pozarycki A, (2008) “Energy absorption in large dimension asphalt pavement samples reinforced with geosynthetics,” Found. Civ. enviromental Eng.

[15]    Canestrari F, (2018) “Advanced Interface Testing of Grids in Asphalt Pavements,” Springer, Cham, pp. 127–202.

[16]    Kim J and Buttlar W.G, (2002) “Analysis of Reflective Crack Control System Involving Reinforcing Grid over Base-Isolating Interlayer Mixture,” J. Transp. Eng., vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 375–384, Jul.

[17]    Fallah S and Khodaii A, (2015) “Evaluation of parameters affecting reflection cracking in geogrid-reinforced overlay,” J. Cent. South Univ., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1016–1025.

[18]    Khodaii A, Fallah S, (2009), “Effects of geosynthetics on reduction of reflection cracking in asphalt overlays,” Geotext. Geomembranes.

[19]    Zamora-Barraza D, Calzada-Pérez M.A, Castro-Fresno D, and Vega-Zamanillo A, (2011) “Evaluation of anti-reflective cracking systems using geosynthetics in the interlayer zone,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 130–136.

[20]    Xu Y, Williams D J, and Serati M, (2018) “Investigation of shear strength of interface between roadbase and geosynthetics using large-scale single-stage and multi-stage direct shear test,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., pp. 1–24.

[21]    Ling J, Wei F, Gao J, Zhang J, Tian Y, and Li Y, (2019) “New Test Method for Measuring Reflective Cracking in Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlay Pavements,” Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, p. 036119811984104.

[22]    Gonzalez-Torre I, Calzada-Perez M A, Vega-Zamanillo A, and Castro-Fresno D, (2014) “Damage evaluation during installation of geosynthetics used in asphalt pavements,” Geosynth. Int., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 377–386.

[23]    Norambuena-Contreras J, Gonzalez-Torre I, Fernandez-Arnau D, and Lopez-Riveros C, (2016) “Mechanical damage evaluation of geosynthetics fibres used as anti-reflective cracking systems in asphalt pavements,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 109, pp. 47–54.

[24]    Noory A, Moghadas Nejad F, and Khodaii A, (2019) “Evaluation of geocomposite-reinforced bituminous pavements with Amirkabir University Shear Field Test,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 259–279.

[25]    Volpi F, (2017) “A capacitance-based solution to monitor absolute crack length in four-point bending test: Modelling and experiments,” Sensors Actuators, A Phys., vol. 254, pp. 145–151.

[26]    Norambuena-Contreras J and Gonzalez-Torre I, (2015) “Influence of geosynthetic type on retarding cracking in asphalt pavements,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 78, pp. 421–429.

[27]    Noory A, Nejad F.M, and Khodaii A, (2018) “Effective parameters on interface failure in a geocomposite reinforced multilayered asphalt system,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1458–1475, Aug.

[28]    Ogundipe O, Thom N, and Collop A, (2013) “Investigation of crack resistance potential of stress absorbing membrane interlayers (SAMIs) under traffic loading,” Constr. Build. Mater..

[29]    Pasetto M, Pasquini E, Giacomello G, and Baliello A, (2019) “Innovative composite materials as reinforcing interlayer systems for asphalt pavements: an experimental study,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., pp. 1–15.

[30]    Saride S and Kumar V, (2019) “Reflection Crack Assessment Using Digital Image Analysis,” Springer, Singapore, pp. 139–156.

[31]    Zornberg J G, (2017) “Functions and Applications of Geosynthetics in Roadways,” Procedia Eng., vol. 189, no. May, pp. 298–306,.

[32]    Zofka A, Maliszewski M, and Maliszewska D, (2016) “Glass and carbon geogrid reinforcement of asphalt mixtures,” Asph. Paving Technol. Assoc. Asph. Paving Technol. Tech. Sess., vol. 85, no. 0, pp. 717–744.

[33]    Saride S and Kumar V, (2017) “Geotextiles and Geomembranes In fl uence of geosynthetic-interlayers on the performance of asphalt overlays on pre-cracked pavements,” Geotext. Geomembranes, pp. 1–13.

[34]    Sachs S, Vandenbossche J.M, Alland K, Desantis J, and Khazanovich L, (2016) “Effects of Interlayer Systems on Reflective Cracking in Unbonded Overlays of Existing Concrete Pavements,” J. Transp. Res. Board.

[35]    Habbouche J, Hajj E Y, Morian N E, and Sebaaly P E, (2017) “Reflective cracking relief interlayer for asphalt pavement rehabilitation : from development to demonstration,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–28.

[36]    Sobhan K and Tandon V, (2008) “Mitigating Reflection Cracking in Asphalt Overlays using Geosynthetic Reinforcements,” Road Mater. Pavement Des., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 367–387.

[37]    Khodaii A, Fallah S, and Moghadas Nejad F, (2009) “Effects of geosynthetics on reduction of reflection cracking in asphalt overlays,” Geotext. Geomembranes, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–8.

[38]    Oelkers C, (2017) “The versatile additive for asphalt mixes - Sasobit,”.

[39]    Dizaj A B, Ziari H, and Nejhad M A, (2014) “Effects of Carbon Fibre Geogrid Reinforcement on Propagation of Cracking in Pavement and Augmentation of Flexible Pavement Life,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 891–892, pp. 1533–1538.