Soil Structure Interaction Effects on Hysteretic Energy Demand for Stiffness Degrading Systems Built on Flexible Soil Sites

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran

2 Department of Civil, Water & Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran


This paper aims to investigate the effect of soil-structure interaction on plastic energy demand spectra directly derived from the energy-balance equations of soil-shallow-foundation structure with respect to an ensemble of far-field strong ground motions recorded on alluvium soil. The superstructure is modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with Modified Clough stiffness degrading modelresting on flexible soil. The soil below the superstructure is modeled as a homogeneous elastic half space and is considered through the concept of Cone shallow foundation Models. A parametric study is carried out for 2400 soil-structure systems with various aspect ratios of the building as well as dimensionless frequency with wide range of fundamental fixed-base period and target ductility demand values subject to an ensemble of 19 earthquakes. Results show that generally for the structure located on softer soils severe dissipated energy drop will be observed with respect to the corresponding fixed-base system. The only exception is for the case of short period slender buildings in which the hysteretic energy demand of soil-structure systems could be up to 70% larger than that of their fixed-base counterparts. Moreover, dissipated energy spectra are much more sensitive to the variation of target ductility especially for the case of drastic SSI effect. 


Main Subjects

[1] ASCE/SEI (2006). Standard 41-06 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, USA.
[2] urocode 8: (2005). Design of structures for earthquake resistance.
[3] Code TE. (2007). Specification for structures to be built in disaster areas, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement Government of Republic of Turkey.
[4] Park Y-J, Ang A-S, Wen Y-K. (1984). Seismic damage analysis and damage-limiting design of RC buildings. University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station. College of Engineering. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.,
[5] Park Y-J, Ang AH-S. (1985). Mechanistic seismic damage model for reinforced concrete, Journal of structural engineering, 111 722-39.
[6] Fajfar P. (1992). Equivalent ductility factors, taking into account low‐cycle fatigue, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 21 837-48.
[7] Fajfar P, Vidic T. (1994). Consistent inelastic design spectra: hysteretic and input energy, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 23 523-37.
[8] Rodriguez M. (1994). A measure of the capacity of earthquake ground motions to damage structures, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 23 627-43.
[9] Teran-Gilmore A. (1996). Performance-based earthquake-resistant design of framed buildings using energy concepts: University of California, Berkeley;
[10] Manfredi G. (2001). Evaluation of seismic energy demand, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 30 485-99.
[11] Riddell R, Garcia J. (2002). Hysteretic energy spectrum and earthquake damage, 7th US NCEE (Boston).
[12] Kuwamura H, Galambos TV. (1989). Earthquake load for structural reliability, Journal of Structural Engineering, 115 1446-62.
[13] Housner GW, (1959). editor Behavior of structures during earthquakes. Selected Earthquake Engineering Papers of George W Housner: ASCE.
[14] Zahrah TF, Hall WJ. (1984). Earthquake energy absorption in SDOF structures, Journal of structural Engineering, 110 1757-72.
[15] Akiyama H. (1985). Earthquake-resistant limit-state design for buildings: Univ of Tokyo Pr.
[16] Bertero V, Uang C. (1988). Implications of recorded earthquake ground motions on seismic design of building structures. Research Report (UCB/EERC-88/13).
[17] Decanini LD, Mollaioli F. (1998). Formulation of elastic earthquake input energy spectra, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 27 1503-22.
[18] Decanini LD, Mollaioli F. (2001). An energy-based methodology for the assessment of seismic demand, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 21 113-37.
[19] Leelataviwat S, Saewon W, Goel SC. (2009). Application of energy balance concept in seismic evaluation of structures, Journal of structural engineering, 135 113-21.
[20] Dindar AA, Yalçin C, Yüksel E, Özkaynak H, Büyüköztürk O. (2015). Development of Earthquake Energy Demand Spectra, Earthquake Spectra, 31 1667-89.
[21] Benavent-Climent A, López-Almansa F, Bravo-González DA. (2010). Design energy input spectra for moderate-to-high seismicity regions based on Colombian earthquakes, Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, 30 1129-48.
[22] Sadeghi K. (2011). Energy based structural damage index based on nonlinear numerical simulation of structures subjected to oriented lateral cyclic loading, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 9 155-64.
[23] Chopra AK, Gutierrez JA. (1974). Earthquake response analysis of multistorey buildings including foundation interaction, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 3 65-77.
[24] Veletsos AS. (1977). Dynamics of structure-foundation systems, Structural and geotechnical mechanics, 333-61.
[25] Wolf JP. (1985). Dynamic soil-structure interaction: Prentice Hall int.
[26] Ghannad M, Jahankhah H. (2007). Site-dependent strength reduction factors for soil-structure systems, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27 99-110.
[27] Ganjavi B, Hao H. (2012). A parametric study on the evaluation of ductility demand distribution in multi-degree-of-freedom systems considering soil–structure interaction effects, Engineering Structures, 43 88-104.
[28] Tang Y, Zhang J. (2011). Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of a slender RC shear wall considering soil–structure interaction effects, Engineering Structures, 33 218-29.
[29] Raychowdhury P. (2011). Seismic response of low-rise steel moment-resisting frame (SMRF) buildings incorporating nonlinear soil–structure interaction (SSI), Engineering Structures, 33 958-67.
[30] Aviles J, Pérez-Rocha LE. (2011). Use of global ductility for design of structure–foundation systems, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31 1018-26.
[31] Khoshnoudian F, Ahmadi E. (2013). Effects of pulse period of near‐field ground motions on the seismic demands of soil–MDOF structure systems using mathematical pulse models, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 42 1565-82.
[32] Ganjavi B, Hajirasouliha I, Bolourchi A. (2016). Optimum lateral load distribution for seismic design of nonlinear shear-buildings considering soil-structure interaction, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 88 356-68.
[33] Ganjavi B, Hao H. (2014). Strength reduction factor for MDOF soil–structure systems, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23 161-80.
[34] Bielak J. (1978). Dynamic response of non‐linear building‐foundation systems, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 6 17-30.
[35] Nakhaei M, Ghannad MA. (2008). The effect of soil–structure interaction on damage index of buildings, Engineering Structures, 30 1491-9.
[36] Nakhaei M, Ghannad M. (2006). The effect of soil-structure interaction on hysteretic energy demand of buildings, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 24 641-5.
[37] Clough RW. (1966). Effect of stiffness degradation on earthquake ductility requirements: Structural Engineering Laboratory, University of California,
[38] Mahin SA, Bertero VV. (1976). Nonlinear seismic response of a coupled wall system, Journal of the Structural Division, 102 1759-80.
[39] Wolf JP. (1994). Foundation vibration analysis using simple physical models: Pearson Education.
[40] Meek JW, Wolf JP. (1993). Why cone models can represent the elastic half‐space, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 22 759-71.
[42] Ganjavi B, Hao H, Hajirasouliha I. (2016). Influence of Higher Modes on Strength and Ductility Demands of Soil–Structure Systems, Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 1650006.