Innovations in Sustainable Earthquake Resisting Rocking Wall-Frames

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 MGA Structural Engineering Consultants Inc., Glendale, CA, US

2 M.S, Structural Engineering Department, University of Science & Culture

3 M.S, Faculty of Civil Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology


This paper introduces a novel design concept for the development of efficient, sustainable Rocking-Wall Moment Frames (RWMFs) under seismic conditions. The proposed concepts lead to a novel structural configuration with provisions for Collapse Prevention (CP), Self-Centering (SC), reparability, performance control (PC), damage reduction, and energy based seismic analysis. It introduces the merits of design led analysis (DLA) over the traditional methods of approach, followed by the development of a lateral resisting system that is more efficient than its conventional counterparts. The fundamental idea behind the proposed methodology is that seismic structural response is mainly a function of design and construction, rather than numerical analysis. In design led analysis the rules of mechanics and structural design are induced rather than followed .The new system is a combination of grade beam restrained moment frames and articulated shear walls, tied to each other by means of post tensioned (PT) stabilizers and Gap Opening Link Beams (GOLBs).


Main Subjects

[1] M. Zimmermann, H.-J. Althaus and A. Haas .(2005). Benchmarks for sustainable construction: A contribution to develop a standard. Energy and Buildings, 2005. 37(11): p. 1147-1157.
[2] J. Ajrab. (2000). Rocking-wall frame structures with supplemental damping devices. State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. MS thesis.
[3] G. MacRae, Y. Kimura, C. Roeder. (2004). Effect of column stiffness on braced frame seismic behavior. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 3, ©ASCE.
[4] X.D. Ji, M. Kato, T. Wang, T. Hitaka, M. Nakashima.(2009). Effect of gravity columns on mitigation of drift concentration for braced frames. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65, (12) 2148-2136.
[5] G.G. Deierlein, X. Ma, M. Eatherton, et al. (2009). Collaborative research on development of innovative steel braced frame systems with controlled rocking and replaceable fuses. Proc. 6th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo: 413-416,.
[6] J. Ajrab, G. Pekcan, J. Mander. (2004). Rocking wall–frame structures with supplemental tendon systems, J. Struct. Eng., 130(6), 895–903.
[7] Y. Kurama, R. Sause, S. Pessiki, L. W. Lu, M. El-Sheikh, Seismic design and response evaluation of unbonded post-tensioned precast concrete walls, Precast Seismic Structural Systems Rep. No. 1998/03 (Lehigh Univ., Lehigh, Pa., Rep. No. EQ-97-01)
[8] A. Wada, Z. Qu, H. Ito, S. Motoyui, H. Sakata, K. Kasai. (2009). Seismic retrofit using rocking walls and steel dampers, ATC/SEI Conference on improving the seismic performance of existing buildings and other structures.
[9] B. Janhunen, S. Tipping, J. Wolfe, D. Mar. (2012). Seismic retrofit of a 1960s steel moment- frame high-rise using a pivoting spine. Proceedings of the 2012 annual meeting of the Los Angeles tall buildings structural design council.
[10] L. Panian, M. Steyer, S. Tipping. (2007). An innovative approach to earthquake safety and concrete construction. Journal of the Post Tensioning Institute, 5(1) 7-16.
[11] Z. Qu, A. Wada, S. Motoyui, H. Sakata, S. Kinishi. (2012). Pin-supported walls for enhancing the seismic performance of building structures. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 41, 2075-91
[12] Q. T. Ma, G. D. Wight, J. W. Butterworth, J. M Ingham. (2006). Assessment of current procedures for predicting the in-plane behaviour of controlled rocking walls, Eight U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE), San Francisco, California, U.S.
[13] G. MacRae. (2011). The Continuous Column Concept - Development and Use, Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, 14-16 Auckland, New Zealand.
[14] J. W. Meek. (1975). Effects of foundation tipping on dynamic response, J. Struct. Div. ASCE, 101(7), 1297–1311.
[15] M. Aslam, W.G. Goddon, D.T. Scalise. (1980). Earthquake rocking response of rigid bodies, J. Struct. Div. ASCE, 106(2), 377–392.
[16] M. J. N. Priestley, J. Tao. (1993). Seismic response of precast prestressed concrete frames with partially debonded tendons. PCI J., Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, 38-1, 58–69.
[17] J. B. Mander, C. T. Cheng, Seismic resistance of bridge piers based on damage avoidance design. Tech. Rep. NCEER,1(997)-0014, Buffalo, N.Y
[18] D. Seymour, S. Laflamme.(2011). Quasi-Static analysis of rocking wall systems Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
[19] X. Ma, M. Eatherton, J. Hajjar, H. Krawinkler, G. Deierlein. (2010). Seismic Design and Behavior of Steel Frames with Controlled Rocking-Part II: Large Scale Shake Table Testing and System Collapse Analysis. Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress, Orlando, FL, 12–15
[20] H. Zibaei, J. Mokari. (2014). Evaluation of seismic behavior improvement in RC MRFs retrofitted by controlled rocking wall systems, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 23, 995-1006.
[21] M. Grigorian, C. Grigorian. (2015). An Introduction to the structural design of rocking wall-frames with a view to collapse prevention, self alignment and repairability. Structural Design Tall Buildings,.Under press.
[22] J. F. Hajjar, A. Sesen, E. Jampole, A. Wetherbee, A synopsis of sustainable structural systems with rocking, self-centering, and articulated energy-dissipating fuses.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports,Report, No. NEU-CEE-2013-01, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, US
[23] N. B. Chancellor, M. R. Eatherton. (2014). D. A. Roke, T. Akbas, T, Self-centering seismic force resisting systems: High performance structures for the city of tomorrow. Buildings, 4, 520-548.
[24] M. Grigorian and C. Grigorian.(2011). Performance control for seismic design of moment frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67, 1106-1114 .
[25] M. Grigorian and C. Grigorian.(2012). Performance control: a new elastic-plastic design procedure for earthquake resisting moment frames. J. Struct. Div. ASCE, No. 6,138, 473~483.
[26] G. W. Housner. (1963). The behaviour of Inverted pendulum structures during earthquakes, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 53(2), 403-417.
[27] G. W. Housner. (1965). Limit design of structures to resist earthquakes. Proceedings of the First World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Berkeley, CA: EERI.
[28] B. G. Neal. (1963). The Plastic Methods of Structural Analysis, Chapman & Hall Ltd, pp 256-266.
[29] D. A. Nethercot. (2001). Limit state design of structural steelwork, Spon press, UK. pp. 242-248.
[30] M. Mazzolani .(1997). Plastic design of seismic resistant steel frames, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dynam, 26(2), pp.167~169.
[31] S. C. Goel, W. C., Liao, M. R. Bayat, S. H. Chao. (2010). Performance-based plastic design method for earthquake resistant structures. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. 19, 115-137.
[32] ASCE. Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings, ASCE/SEI Standard 41-06 with supplement 1, 2007, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. US
[33] Naeim F. (2001) .The Seismic Design Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, U.S
[34] Bozorgnia Y, Bertero VV. 2004. Earthquake Engineering, CRC Press, US
[35] M. Grigorian, C. Grigorian.(2012). A new performance based design approach for moment resisting frames, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, , 39, 111.
[36] M. Grigorian, C. Grigorian. (2013). An overview on performance control and efficient design of lateral resisting moment frames. International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, 2, No 2, 141-152 .
[37] Dazio A. (2004).Residual displacements in capacity designed reinforced concrete structures.  The 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
[38] Farrow KT, Kurama YT. (2003).SDOF demand index relationships for performance-based design. Earthquake Spectra; 19(4):799–838.
[39] MacRae GA, Kawashima K. (1997)Post-earthquake residual displacements of bilinear oscillators. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics; 26(7):701–716.
[40] Parisi F, Augenti N, Prota A. (2014). Implications of the spandrel type on the lateral behavior of un-reinforced masonry walls. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics; 43(12):1867–1887.
[41] R. O. Hamburger, H. Krawinkler, J. O. Malley, S. M. Adan. (2009). “Seismic design of steel special moment frames: A guide for practicing engineers.” NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief, No. 2, US.
[42] S. T. Bungale. (1998). Steel, concrete, and composite design of tall buildings, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill, 477-478.
[43] Grigorian C, Grigorian M. (2013). Drift control for multistory moment-frames under lateral loading, International Journal of High-Rise Buildings December, 2, No 4, 1-11, (2013b)
[44] M. Grigorian. (1993). On the lateral response of regular high-rise frames, Structural Design Tall Buildings, 2(3), 233.
[45] M. Hossaini, M.R, Imagh-e-Naiini. (1999). A quick method for estimating the lateral stiffness of building systems,Struct. Design Tall Build. 8, 247–260,
[46] M. Grigorian, Sh. Dehghanian, N. Ghorbani. (2014). Theorem for basic design of rocking wall-moment frames, Iranian journal of structural engineering, 2, 82-94, 92014)
[47] Grigorian M, Grigorian C. (2012). Recent developments in plastic design analysis of steel moment frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 7683–92.
[48] A. Brandt. (1978). Criteria and methods of structural optimization, Kluwer Academic publications, US.
[49] J. Foulkes. (1953). Minimum weight design and the theory of plastic collapse, Q. Appl. Math., 10, 347-358, 13.
[50] J. Foulkes. (1954). The minimum weight design of structural frames, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 223, 482-494.
[51] Chopra AK, Goel, RK. (1999). Capacity-demand diagram methods for estimating seismic deformations of inelastic structures. Earthquake Spectra, 15, 637–655
[52] C. Grigorian and M. Grigorian. (2015). Performance control and efficient design of rocking-wall moment-frames. J. Struct. Div. ASCE, (under press).
[53] Garlock, M. “Full-Scale Testing, Seismic analysis, and design of post-tensioned seismic resistant
[54] M. Grigorian. (2014). New Direction in Earthquake Resisting Structures, Iranian journal of structural engineering.
[55] M. Grigorian, A.S. Moghadam, H. Mohammadi, (2017). Advances in rocking core-moent frame analysis, Bulletin of Eerthquake, 1-27