Investigating Stabilized Excavations Using Soil Nailing Method in Urban Context

Document Type: Technical Report


1 Departement of civil engineering, Mazandaran Institute of Technology, Babol, Iran

2 Departement of civil engineering, Tabari University of babol, Babol, Iran



There are various methods for stabilizing excavations in urban areas which one of them is the nailing method. Designing a nailing system and analyzing the performance of excavations is done by various software applications. One of these computer programs is PAXIS software which run based on the finite element method (FEM). In the present study, a numerical analysis of the performance of the excavations was investigated under different soil model and the most appropriate model was introduced. In addition, the excavation performance was evaluated based on certain designing conditions affected by the soil resistance specifications (cohesion and internal friction angle) and surcharge. The results indicated that, using an appropriate behavioral model which contains increasing soil stiffness with depth, shows results close to reality. They also indicated that under certain designing conditions, the lateral deformation of the soil nail wall and ground settlement decrease as soil resistance specifications increase.


[1] Ardakani, Alireza, Mahdi Bayat, and Mehran Javanmard. (2014). "Numerical modeling of soil nail walls considering Mohr Coulomb, hardening soil and hardening soil with small-strain stiffness effect models." Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, 391-401.

[2] Brinkgreve, R. B. J., K. J. Bakker, and P. G. Bonnier. (2006). "The relevance of small-strain soil stiffness in numerical simulation of excavation and tunneling projects." In Proceedings of 6th European Conference in Geotechnical Engineering, Graz, Austria, 133-139.

[3] Chung, Moonkyung. "Behavior of a full scale tieback wall in sand." PhD diss., Texas A&M University, (1991).

[4] FHWA (2015). Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7 Soil Nail Walls-Reference Manual (No. FHWA-NHI-14-007). National Highway Institute (US).

[5] Ghareh, Soheil. (2015). "Parametric assessment of soil-nailing retaining structures in cohesive and cohesionless soils." Measurement, Vol. 73, 341-351.

 [6] Hejazi, Yousef, Daniel Dias, and Richard Kastner. (2008). "Impact of constitutive models on the numerical analysis of underground constructions." Acta Geotechnica, Vol. 3, No. 4, 251-258.

[7] Liew, Shaw-Shong, and Chee-Min Khoo. (2007). "Performance of soil nail stabilisation works for a 14.5 m deep excavation in uncontrolled fill ground." In Proc. 16th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conferences, Malaysia.

[8] PLAXIS. (2006). Plaxis user manual (version 8.6). Delft University of Technology & Plaxis BV, the Netherlands.

[9] Qhaderi, R., M. Vafaeian, and H. Hashemolhoseini. (2005). "A parametric study of the behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil slopes." International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 4. 371.

[10] Singh, Vikas Pratap, and GL Sivakumar Babu. (2010). "2D numerical simulations of soil nail walls." Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 4. 299-309.

[11] Sivakumar Babu, G. L., B. R. Srinivasa Murthy, and A. Srinivas. (2002). "Analysis of construction factors influencing the behaviour of soil-nailed earth retaining walls." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement, Vol. 6, No. 3, 137-143.

[12] Smith, I. M., and N. Su. (1997). "Three‐dimensional FE analysis of a nailed soil wall curved in plan." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 21, No. 9, 583-597.

[13] Wu, D., Wang, P., Liu, G.Q., (2013). "Influence of C and u values on slope supporting by soil nailing wall in thick miscellaneous fill site." Adv. Mater. Resو 504–507.

[14] Wu, Jiu-jiang, Qian-gong Cheng, Xin Liang, and Jian-Lei Cao. (2014). "Stability analysis of a high loess slope reinforced by the combination system of soil nails and stabilization piles." Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, 252-259.

[15] Zolqadr, Emad, Seyed Shahaboddin Yasrobi, and Mohammad Norouz Olyaei. (2016). "Analysis of soil nail walls performance-Case study." Geomechanics and Geoengineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1-12.