A Study on the Effects of Waste Rubber Tire Dimensions on Fine-Grained Soil Behavior

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Geology, Payame Noor University.

3 M.Sc. Student of Geotechnics- Azad University, Mashhad Branch


Mashhad city is located on alluvial deposits where the expanded area of this city, especially the central and eastern areas surrounding Imam Reza holy shrine, are built on weak and fine-grained deposits. Therefore, the soil improvement would be inevitable due to construction of high-rise buildings such as hotels and commercial complexes in these areas, as well as restructuring old buildings. Today, the use of waste rubber tire to stabilize the soil is not only efficient to secure human health and clean the environment but also as an inexpensive additive to improve the behavior of problematic soils. In this research, waste rubber tires in three different dimensions (


Main Subjects

[1]        Yusefi, E., Ghafuri, M., Lashkaripour, G., & Talebian, S. L. (2007). “Investigation of clay minerals in soil of Mashhad City according to its Atterberg limits”. 05th Iranian Conference of Engineering Geology and the Environmen. 
[2]        Hafezi Moghaddas, N. & Ghazi, A. (2007). “Geotechnical Zonation and evaluation of ultimate bearing capacity of Mashhad city”. 05th Iranian Conference of Engineering Geology and the Environment.
[3]        Aghaeefar, A., Rezvani, M. A., & Molahasani, A. (2010). “Safety Evaluation of Buildings in the Vicinity of Railway Tracks and Effectof Soil Classification”. Journal of Civil Engineering Islamic Azad University, 3(4), pp. 51–60.
[4]        Cheshomi, A. & Ghodrati, M. (2014). “Estimating Menard pressuremeter modulus and limit pressure from SPT in silty sand and silty clay soils. A case study in Mashhad, Iran”. Journal of Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 10(3), pp. 1–9.
[5]        Gorjestani, K., Akhtarpoor, A., & Abrishami, S. (2015). “Effect of Increasing of dry unit weight on shear strength of fine-grained soil in Mashhad city in saturated state”. 2nd Iranian Conferences on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.
[6]        Nasseh, S., Moghaddas, N. H., Ghafoori, M., Asghari, O., & Bazaz, J. B. (2016). “Spatial Variability Analysis of Subsurface Soil in the City of Mashhad, Northern- East Iran”. International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering, 50 (2), pp. 219–229.
[7]        Ghazi, A., Hafezi Moghaddas, N., Hossein, S., Ghafuri, M., & Lashkaripour, G. (2015). “The Effect of Geomorphology on Engineering Geology Properties of Alluvial Deposits in Mashhad City”. Scientific Quarterly Journal, 24(94), pp. 17–28.
[8]        Sajedi, K., (2004). “Study of gypsum soils behavior of Mashhad southwestern”. Ms.C thesis, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
[9]        Ghalibaf, H., Boluri Bazaz, J., & BagherPour Moghadam, A. (2010). “Study of Geotechnical Properties of Gypsum Soils in North East of Mashhad and its Improvement Methods (Case study: Ghoroghi Region in Mashhad for construction of Mehr residential complexes)”. 46th International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Mechanics, Tehran, Iran.
[10]      Boluri Bazaz, J. & Sajedi, K. (2008). “Mechanical behavior of gypsum soils and the effects of cycles of wett ing and dry ing and cycles of loading and unloading on their properties”. Journal of Faculty of Engineering, 36(3), pp. 1–13.
[11]      Tafti, M. F. & Emadi, M. Z. (2016). “Impact of using recycled tire fibers on the mechanical properties of clayey and sandy soils”. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 21, pp. 7113–7225.
[12]      Thomas, B. S., Gupta, R. C., Kalla, P., & Cseteneyi, L. (2014). “Strength, abrasion and permeation characteristics of cement concrete containing discarded rubber fine aggregates”. Construction and Building Materials, 59, pp. 204–212.
[13]      Yadav, J. S. & Tiwari, S. K. (2017). “A study on the potential utilization of crumb rubber in cement treated soft clay”. Journal of Building Engineering, 9, pp. 177–191.
[14]      Edinçliler, A., Baykal, G., & Saygili, A. (2010). “Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction”. Waste Management, 30(6), pp. 1073–1080.
[15]      Vidal, H. (1969). “The principle of reinforced earth”. Highway research record, (282).
[16]      Akbulut, S., Arasan, S., & Kalkan, E. (2007). “Modification of clayey soils using scrap tire rubber and synthetic fibers”. Applied Clay Science, 38(1–2), pp. 23–32.
[17]      Yadav, J. S., Hussain, S., Tiwari, S. K., & Garg, A. (2019). “Assessment of the load–deformation behaviour of rubber fibre–reinforced cemented clayey soil”. Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology, 6(2), pp.105-136.
[18]      Gill, G. & Mittal, R. K. (2019). “Use of waste tire-chips in shallow footings subjected to eccentric loading-an experimental study”. Construction and Building Materials, 199, pp. 335–348.
[19]      Sharifi, M., Meftahi, M., & Naeini, S. A. (2019). “Influence of waste tire chips on steady state behavior of sand”. Journal of Engineering Geology, 12(5), 189-212.
[20]      Priyanga, G., Divya Krishnan, K., & Ravichandran, P. T. (2018). “Characteristics of Rubberized Soil with Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag as Binder Material”. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(2), pp. 8655–8661.
[21]      Bekhiti, M., Trouzine, H., & Rabehi, M. (2019). “Influence of waste tire rubber fibers on swelling behavior, unconfined compressive strength and ductility of cement stabilized bentonite clay soil”. Construction and Building Materials, 208, pp. 304–313.
[22]      Kolhe, P. V & Langote, R. V. (2018). “Performance of Black Cotton Soil Stabilized With Rubber Tyre Shreads”. Journal of Geotechnical Studies, 2(2), pp. 1-8.
[23]      Yadav, J. S. & Tiwari, S. K. (2017). “Effect of waste rubber fibres on the geotechnical properties of clay stabilized with cement”. Applied Clay Science, 149, pp. 97–110.
[24]      Tafti, M. F. & Emadi, M. Z. (2016). “Impact of using recycled tire fibers on the mechanical properties of clayey and sandy soils”. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 21, pp. 7113–7225.
[25]      Srivastava, A., Pandey, S., & Rana, J. (2014). “Use of shredded tyre waste in improving the geotechnical properties of expansive black cotton soil”. Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 9(4), pp. 303–311.
[26]      Kalkan, E. (2013). “Preparation of scrap tire rubber fiber–silica fume mixtures for modification of clayey soils”. Applied Clay Science, 80, pp. 117–125.
[27]      Miller, C. J. & Rifai, S. (2004). “Fiber reinforcement for waste containment soil liners”. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(8), pp. 891–895.
[28]      Dunham-Friel, J. & Carraro, J. A. H. (2014). “Effects of Compaction Effort, Inclusion Stiffness, and Rubber Size on the Shear Strength and Stiffness of Expansive Soil-Rubber (ESR) Mixtures”. Geo-Congress; Geo-characterization and Modeling for Sustainability, pp. 3635–3644.
[29]      Al-Bared, M. A. M., Marto, A., & Latifi, N. (2018). “Utilization of recycled tiles and tyres in stabilization of soils and production of construction materials–A state-of-the-art review”. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 22(10), pp. 3860–3874.
[30]      Cabalar, A. F., Karabash, Z., & Mustafa, W. S. (2014). “Stabilising a clay using tyre buffings and lime”. Road materials and pavement design, 15(4), pp. 872–891.
[31]      Signes, C. H., Garzón-Roca, J., Fernández, P. M., de la Torre, M. E. G., & Franco, R. I. (2016). “Swelling potential reduction of Spanish argillaceous marlstone Facies Tap soil through the addition of crumb rubber particles from scrap tyres”. Applied Clay Science, 132, pp. 768–773.
[32]      Yadav, J. S. & Tiwari, S. K. (2017). “A study on the potential utilization of crumb rubber in cement treated soft clay”. Journal of Building Engineering, 9, pp. 177–191.
[33]      Heyer, L. C. (2012). “Swell, stiffness and strength of expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixtures at various scales: effect of specimen and rubber particle sizes”. Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University.
[34]      Cabalar, A. & Karabash, Z. (2015). “California Bearing Ratio of a Sub-Base Material Modified With Tire Buffings and Cement Addition”. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 43(6), pp. 1279–1287.
[35]      Tajdini, M., Nabizadeh, A., Taherkhani, H., & Zartaj, H. (2017). “Effect of added waste rubber on the properties and failure mode of kaolinite clay”. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(6), pp. 949–958.