Numerical Investigation of Composite Shear Walls with Different Types of Steel and Concrete Materials as Boundary Elements

Document Type : Regular Paper


Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


The main purpose of this study is to numerically assess the effect of boundary elements with different types of steel and concrete materials on nonlinear performance of composite steel–reinforced concrete wall (CSRCW) by employing ABAQUS software. Two types of common steel profiles including box and I-shaped sections, located at the middle and extremities of the wall, were used to assess ultimate strength of the CSRCW. In addition, effects of concrete confinement on boundary elements were investigated for fully and partially encasement degrees. Following this, steel materials with three yield stresses of 300, 400 and 500 MPa, and concrete in two grades with compressive strengths of 30 and 40 MPa were considered. The theoretical results demonstrated that numerical models can predict the fracture zones similar to experimental observations where the failure modes of CSRCWs appeared to have ductile mechanisms. Based on the numerical outputs, the presence of I-shaped steel section in the middle of CSRCW participated to effectively distribute the stress throughout the shear wall, which was found to be 6.5% higher than that conventional shear wall. Furthermore, using steel boundary elements with higher yield strengths caused the highest amount of ultimate strength for the CSRCW to be 397.1 kN.


Main Subjects

[1] Viest, I.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T., Wyllie, L.A. (1997) “Composite construction: design for buildings” New York: McGraw-Hill.
[2] Kim, T., Foutch, D. (2007) “Application of FEMA methodology to RC shear wall buildings governed by flexure” Engineering Structures Vol. 29, pp. 2514–2522.
[3] Esmaeili, H., Kheyroddin, A., Kafi, M. A., Nikbakht, H. (2013) “Comparison of nonlinear behavior of steel moment frames accompanied with RC shear walls or steel bracings” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 22, pp. 1062-1074.
[4] Ghods, S., Kheyroddin, A., Nazeryan, M., Mirtaheri S.M., Gholhaki, M. (2016) “Nonlinear behavior of connections in RCS frames with bracing and steel plate shear wall” Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 22, pp. 915–935.
 [5] Liao, F.Y., Han, L.H., Tao, Z. (2010) “Experimental behavior of RC shear walls framed with steel reinforced concrete (SRC) columns under cyclic loading” Steel and Composite Structures. In: Proceedings of the 4-th international conference, pp. 233–238.
[6] Esmaeili H., Kheyroddin A., Naderpour H. (2013) “Seismic behavior of steel moment resisting frames associated with RC shear walls” Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transaction B: Engineering, 37(C) pp. 395–407.
[7] Kheyroddin, A., Emami, E. (2016) “Shear walls” Semnan University Press, Semnan, Iran (in Persian), pp. 584-635.
[8] Kheyroddin, A., Naderpour, H. (2008). “Nonlinear finite element analysis of composite RC shear walls” Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transaction B: Engineering, Vol. 32, pp. 79-89.
[9] Kheyroddin A., Naderpour H. (2006) “Nonlinear finite element analysis of R/C shear walls retrofitted using externally bonded steel plates and FRP sheets” In: 1st International structural specialty conference, Calgary-Canada; p. ST- 093-1-10.
[10] Kazemi, M., Kafi, M. A., Hajforoush, M., Kheyroddin, A. (2019) “Cyclic behaviour of steel ring filled with compressive plastic or concrete, installed in the concentric bracing system” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, pp. 1-11.
[11] Kazemi, M., Hajforoush, M., Khakpour Talebi, P., Daneshfar, M., Shokrgozar, A., Jahandari, S., Saberian, M., Li, J. (2020) “In-situ strength estimation of polypropylene fibre reinforced recycled aggregate concrete using Schmidt rebound hammer and point load test” Journal of Sustainable Cement Based Materials pp. 1-18.
[12] Gholhaki, M., Kheyroddin, A., Hajforoush, M., Kazemi, M. (2018) “An investigation on the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete incorporating magnetic water with various pozzolanic materials” Construction and Building Materials Vol. 158, pp. 173-180.
[13] Hajforoush, M., Madandoust, R., Kazemi, M. (2019) “Effects of simultaneous utilization of natural zeolite and magnetic water on engineering properties of self-compacting concrete” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 20 (2), pp. 289–300.
[14] Guan, M., Liu, W., Lai, M., Du, H., Cui, J., Gan, Y. (2019) “Seismic behaviour of innovative composite walls with high-strength manufactured sand concrete” Engineering Structures Vol.195, pp. 182–199.
[15] Tupper, B. (1999) “Seismic response of reinforced concrete walls with steel boundary elements” Thesis for the degree of Master of Engineering. Mc Gill University; Montreal, Canada.
[16] Zhao, W., Guo, Q., Huang, Z., Tan, L., Chen, J., Ye, Y. (2016) “Hysteretic model for steel–concrete composite shear walls subjected to in-plane cyclic loading” Engineering Structures, Vol. 106, pp. 461–470.
[17] Zhang, H., Liu, H., Li, G., Ning, X. (2019). “Seismic performance of encased steel plate-reinforced gangue concrete
composite shear walls” Structural Engineering, pp. 1-14.
[18] Teng Huang, S., Sheng Huang, Y., He, A., Lin Tang, X., Jun Chen, Q., Liu, X., Cai, J. (2018). “Experimental study on seismic behaviour of an innovative composite
shear wall” Journal of Constructional Steel Research. Vol. 148, pp. 165–179.
[19] Rassouli, B., Shafaei, S., Ayazi, A., Farahbod, F. (2016) “Experimental and numerical study on steel-concrete composite shear wall using light-weight concrete” Journal of Constructional Steel Research Vol.126, pp. 117-128.
[20] Kheyroddin, A., Mirza, M.S. (1995) “Flexural rigidity of reinforced concrete beams.” In Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Annual Conference Proceedings, pp. 1-3.
[21] Kheyroddin, A. (1996) “Nonlinear finite element analysis of flexure-dominant reinforced concrete structures.” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 290p.
[22] Ayazi A, Shafaei S. (2019) “Steel–concrete composite shear walls using precast high performance fiber reinforced concrete panels” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 1617.
[23] Dan, D., Stoian, V., Fabian, A. (2009) “Numerical analysis of composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles” Buletinul Ştiinţific al Universităţii Gheorghe Asachi din Iaşi, BDI B, Vol. LIX, pp. 21 – 32.
[24] Stoian, V., Dan, D., Fabian, A. (2011) “Composite shear walls with encased profiles, new solution for buildings placed in seismic area” Acta Tech Napocensis Civ Eng Architect, Vol. 54, pp. 6–12.
[25] Sun, G., Gu, Q., Li, Q., Fang, Y. (2018) “Experimental and numerical study on the hysteretic behavior of composite partially restrained steel frame-reinforced concrete infill walls with vertical slits” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 16, pp. 1245-1272.
[26] Saari, W.K., Hajjar, F.J., Schultz, A.E., Shield, C.K. (2004) “Behavior of shear studs in steel frames with reinforced concrete infill walls” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 1453–1480.
[27] Hossain, A.K.M., Wright, H.D. (2004) “Experimental and theoretical behavior of composite waling under in-plane shear” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 61, pp. 59–83.
[28] Tong, X.T., Hajar, J.F. (2005) “Schultz AE, Shield CK. Cyclic behavior of steel frame structures with composite reinforced concrete infill walls and partially restrained connections” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.61, pp. 531–52.
[29] Rahnavard, R., Hassanipour, A., Mounesi, A. (2016) “Numerical study on important parameters of composite steel-concrete shear walls” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 121 pp. 441–456.
[30] Dan, D., Fabian, A., Stoian, V. (2011) Theoretical and experimental study on composite steel– concrete shear walls with vertical steel encased profiles Original Research Article” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67, pp. 800–813.
[31] Astaneh, A.A. (2002) “Seismic behavior and design of composite steel plate shear walls.Steel tips” University of California: Berkeley.
[32] Epackachi, S., Whittaker, A., Varma, A. H., and Kurt, E. (2015) “Finite element modeling of steel-plate concrete composite wall piers” Engineering Structures, Vol. 100, pp. 369–384.
[33] Hognestad, E. A. (1951) “study on combined bending and axial load in reinforced concrete members” Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, pp. 43–46. Bulletin Series No. 399.
[34] Lai, M.H., Ho, J.C.M. (2016) “A theoretical axial stress-strain model for circular
concrete-filled-steel-tube columns” Engineering Structures, Vol. 125, pp. 124-143.
[35] Lai, M.H., Liang, Y.W. Wang, Q. Ren, F.M. Chen, Ho, M.T. J.C.M. (2020) “A stress-path dependent stress-strain model for FRP-confined concrete” Engineering Structures, Vol. 203, 109824.
[36] Hibbitt, D., Karlsson, B., Sorensen, P. (2011) “ABAQUS Standard User's Manual” Version (6.11-3).
[37] Madandoust, R., Bazkiyaei, Z.F.Z., Kazemi, M. (2018) “Factor influencing point load tests on concrete” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(8), 937-947.
[38] Madandoust, R., Kazemi, M., Moghadam, S.Y. (2017) “Analytical study on tensile strength of concrete” Romanian Journal of Materials, Vol. 47, pp. 204–209.
[39] Madandoust, R., Kazemi, M. (2017) “Numerical analysis of break-off test method on concrete” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 151, pp. 487–493.
[40] Moghadam, S.Y., Madandoust, R., Ranjbar, M.M., Kazemi, M. (2017) “Analytical study on the behavior of corrosion damaged reinforced concrete beams strengthen with FRP” Romanian Journal of Materials, Vol. 47, pp. 514 – 521.
[41] Szczecina M, Winnicki A. (2015) “Calibration of the CDP model parameters in Abaqus” Incheon, Korea: World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics.
[42] Drucker DC, Prager W. (1952) “Soil mechanics and plastic analysis or limit design” Q Appl Math, Vol. 10, pp.157–65.
[43] Shayanfar, M.A., Kheyroddin, A., Mirza, M.S. (1997) “Element size effects in nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete members” Computers & Structures, 62(2), pp.339-352.
[44] Kheyroddin, A., Arshadi, H., Binaipur, F. (2017) “An overview of the effects of high-strength reinforcement (HSR) on the intermediate moment-resisting frames” AUT Journal Civil Engineering, 1(2), pp. 177-188.
[45] Kazemi, M., Li, J., Lahouti Harehdashta, S., Yousefiehc, N., Jahandarid, S., Saberianb, M. (2020) “Non-linear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP and CFRP bars grouted in sleeves” Structures Vol. 23 pp. 87–102.