Stabilization of Earth Slope by Waste Tire Using Experimental Tests and PIV

Document Type: Regular Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

10.22075/jrce.2020.19096.1359

Abstract

The issue of environmental protection has led researchers to pay serious attention to waste tires. Civil engineers have found that waste tires can increase bearing capacity, earth slope stability, and other useful applications in civil engineering. In this paper, a series of experimental modeling have been performed to investigate the effect of waste tires on increasing the stability of sand slopes. The position and height of the waste tire are investigated to find the most suitable location to use the waste tire. Digital images were taken during the loading on the slope. Particle image velocity (PIV) is used to measure the deformation of the slope during loading. The results show that the reinforced waste tires reduce displacement by 78% and increase the bearing capacity up to 260%. The optimal position of tire pile with reinforcement heights of B, 2B, 3B inside the slope is upslope in terms of bearing capacity and displacements.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Cetin, H., Fener, M., and Gunaydin, O. (2006). “Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material.” Engineering geology, 88(1), pp.110- 120.

[2] Chiu, C.T. (2008). “Use of ground tire rubber in asphalt pavements: field trial and evaluation in Taiwan.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52(3), pp.522- 532.

[3] Wu, J.Y., and Tsai, M. (2009). “Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.” Waste Management, 29(2), pp.636- 642.

[4] Turer, A. (2012). “Recycling of Scrap Tires.” INTECH Open Access Publisher.

[5] Ito, T., and Matsui, T. (1975). “Methods to estimate lateral force acting on stabilizing piles.” Soils and foundations, 21, pp. 21-37.

[6] Reese, L.S., Van Imp, W.F., and Holtz, R.D. (2002). “Single Piles and Pile Groups under Lateral Loading.” Applied Mechanics Reviews, 55(1),

[7] Hajiazizi, M., Nasiri, M., and Mazaheri, A.R. (2018). “The effects of fixed tip piles on stabilization of earth slopes.” Scientia Iranica, A, 25(5), pp. 2550- 2560.

[8] Hajiazizi, M., Nemati, E., Nasiri, M., Bavali, M., and Sharifipur, M. (2018). “Optimal Location of Stone Column in Stabilization of Sand Slope: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation.” Scientia Iranica, Article in Press.

[9] Long, N.T. (1996). “Utilization of used tyres in civil engineering-The Pneusol ‘Tyresoil’”. In Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, Osaka, Japan, pp. 5- 8.

[10] O'Shaughnessy, V., and Garga, V.K. (2000). “Tire-reinforced earthfill. Part 2: Pull-out behaviour and reinforced slope design.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 37(1), pp.97- 116.

[11] Poh, P.S., and Broms, B.B. (1995). “Slope stabilization using old rubber tires and geotextiles.” Journal of performance of constructed facilities, 9(1), pp.76- 79.

[12] Mandal, J.N., Kumar, S., and Meena, C.L. (2005). “Centrifuge modeling of reinforced soil slopes using tire chips.” In Slopes and Retaining Structures under Seismic and Static Conditions, pp. 1- 8.

[13] Belabdelouhab, F., and Kebaïli, N. (2015). “Large Scale Experimentation Slope Stability of «Soil Tyre» in Mostaganem (Algeria).” Energy Procedia, 74, pp.699.706.

[14] Reddy, S.B., and Krishna, A.M. (2015). “Recycled tire chips mixed with sand as lightweight backfill material in retaining wall applications: an experimental investigation.” International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 1(4).

[15] Garcia-Theran, M., Pando, M.A., Celis, H., and Abdoun, T. (2014). “Estimation Challenges of Lateral Pressures in Retaining Structures Using Granular Recycled Tire Aggregates as Backfill.” In Geo-Congress 2014: Geo-characterization and Modeling for Sustainability, pp. 3666- 3675.

[16] Lazizi, A., Trouzine, H., Asroun, A., and Belabdelouhab, F. (2014). “Numerical simulation of tire reinforced sand behind retaining wall under earthquake excitation.” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 4(2), pp. 605.

[17] Ahn, I.S., and Cheng, L. (2014). “Tire derived aggregate for retaining wall backfill under earthquake loading.” Construction and Building Materials, 57, pp.105- 116.

[18] Dammala, P.K., Sodom, B.R., and Adapa, M.K. (2015). Experimental investigation of applicability of sand tire chip mixtures as retaining wall backfill.” In IFCEE 2015 pp. 1420- 1429.

[19] Yoon, S., Prezzi, M., Siddiki, N.Z., and Kim, B. (2006). “Construction of a test embankment using a sand–tire shred mixture as fill material.” Waste Management, 26(9), pp.1033- 1044.

[20] Edinçliler, A., Baykal, G., and Saygılı, A. (2010). “Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.” Waste Management, 30(6), pp.1073- 1080.

[21] Tafreshi, S.M., and Norouzi, A.H., (2012). “Bearing capacity of a square model footing on sand reinforced with shredded tire–An experimental investigation.” Construction and Building Materials, 35, pp.547- 556.

[22] Ghazavi, M., Mohebi, A., and Namdari, M. (2017). “Static Characteristics of Footings on Tire Shred-Reinforced Granular Trench.” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 42(3), pp.1147- 1154.

[23] Yoon, Y.W., Cheon, S.H., and Kang, D.S. (2004). Bearing capacity and settlement of tire-reinforced sands. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 22(5), pp.439- 453.

[24] Yaghoubi, M., Shukla, S.K., and Mohyeddin, A. (2017). “Effects of addition of waste tyre fibres and cement on the engineering behaviour of Perth sand.” Geomechanics and Geoengineering, pp.1- 12.

[25] Ahmed, A., and El Naggar, M.H. (2017). “Effect of cyclic loading on the compressive strength of soil stabilized with bassanite–tire mixture.” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, pp.1- 8.

 [26] Anbazhagan, P., Manohar, D.R., and Rohit, D. (2016). “Influence of size of granulated rubber and tyre chips on the shear strength characteristics of sand–rubber mix.” Geomechanics and Geoengineering, pp.1- 13.

[27] Bali Reddy, S., Pradeep Kumar, D., and Murali Krishna, A. (2015). “Evaluation of the optimum mixing ratio of a sand-tire chips mixture for geoengineering applications.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(2), pp.06015007.

[28] Hataf, N., Fatolahzadeh, A. (2019). “An experimental and numerical study on the bearing capacity of circular and ring footings on rehabilitated sand slopes with geogrid.” Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 7(1), pp. 242- 255.

[29] Noorzad, R., Raveshi, M. (2017). “Mechanical Behavior of Waste Tire Crumbs–Sand Mixtures Determined by Triaxial Tests.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 35, pp.1793–1802.

[30] Bahadori, H., Farzalizadeh, R. (2018). “Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sands Mixed with Tyre Powders and Tyre Shreds.” International Journal of Civil Engineering, 16, pp. 395–408.

[31] Shariatmadari, N., Karimpour-Fard, M. and Shargh, A. (2019). “Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential in Sand–Tire Crumb Mixtures Using the Energy Approach.” International Journal of Civil Engineering, 17, pp. 181–191.

[32] Jamshidi Chenari, R., Alaie, R. and Fatahi, B. (2019). “Constrained Compression Models for Tire-Derived Aggregate-Sand Mixtures Using Enhanced Large Scale Oedometer Testing Apparatus.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 37,pp.2591–2610.

[33] Madhusudhan, B.R., Boominathan, A. and Banerjee, S. (2019). “Factors Affecting Strength and Stiffness of Dry Sand-Rubber Tire Shred Mixtures.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 37,pp.2763–2780.

[34] Hajiazizi, M., Mirnaghizade, M.H., and Nasiri, M. (2019). “Experimental Study of Sand Slopes Reinforced by Waste Tires.” International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering, 53(2), pp. 183-191.

[35] White, D.J., Take, W.A., and Bolton, M.D. (2003). Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry.” Geotechnique, 53(7), pp. 619- 632.

[36] Hajiazizi, M., and Nasiri, M. (2018). “Experimental and numerical study of earth slope reinforcement using ordinary and rigid stone columns.” International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering (IJMGE), 52(1), pp. 23- 30.

[37] Hajiazizi, M., and Nasiri, M. (2019). “Experimental and numerical investigation of reinforced sand slope using geogrid encased stone column.” Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(1), pp. 85- 100.

[38] Fakher, A. and Jones, C.J.F.P. (1996). “Discussion on bearing capacity of rectangular footings on geogrid reinforced sand by Yetimoglu T, Wu JTH, SaglamerA.”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122, pp. 326-327.

[39] Sawwaf, M. (2005). “Strip footing behavior on pile and sheet pile-stabilized sand slope.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(6), pp. 705-715.

[40] Hegde, A.M. and Sitharam, T.G. (2015). “Experimental and numerical studies on protection of buried pipe line sand underground utilities using geocells.”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43(5), pp. 372-381.