Abrahamson, N. (2001). “Incorporating Effects of Near Fault Tectonic Deformation into Design Ground Motions”, a presentation sponsored by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Visiting Professional Program, hosted by State University of New York at Buffalo, 26 Oct. 2001. Available at http://mceer.buffalo.edu/outreach/pr/abrahamson.asp
 Ambarseyes, N. N., Douglas, J. (2000). “Reappraisal of the Effect of Vertical Ground Motions on Response”. Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, ESEE, Report No. 00-4, Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine.
 Ambarseyes, N. N., Simpson, K. A. (1996). “Prediction of vertical response spectra in Europe”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 25(4), pp. 401-412.
 American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO), (1992). Standard specifications for highway bridges, www.aashto.org
 Boore, D. M., Joyner, W. B. and Fumal, T. E. (1997). “Equations for estimating horizontal response spectra and peak acceleration from western North American earthquakes: A summary of recent work”. Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 68(1), pp. 128-153.
 Bozorgnia, Y. Niazi, M. (1993). “Distance scaling of vertical and horizontal response spectra of the Loma Prieta earthquake”, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 22(8), pp. 695-707.
 Bozorgnia, Y., Niazi, M., Campbell, K. W. (1995). “Characteristic of free-field vertical ground motion during the Northridge earthquake”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 11(4), pp. 515-525.
 Elgamal, A., He, L. (2004). “Vertical earthquake ground motion records: An overview”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 5(8), pp. 663-697.
 European Standard (2001), Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, DRAFT No 4, Final Project Team Draft (Stage 34), prEN 1998-1: 200X, 1-19.
 Foutch, A. D., (1997). “A note on the occurrence and effects of vertical earthquake ground motion,” Proceedings of the FHWA/NCEER Workshop on the National Representation of Seismic Ground Motion for New and Existing Highway Facilities, Technical Report NCEER-97-0010.
 Frankel, A. D., Meuller, C., Barnhard, T., Leyendecker, E., Wesson, R., Harmsen, A., Klein, F., Perkins, D., Dickman, N., Hanson, S., (2000). “USGS national seismic hazard maps”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 16(1), pp. 1-19.
 Hall, J. F., Heaton, T. H., Halling, M. W., and Wald, D. J., (1995). “Near-source ground motions and effects on flexible buildings”. Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 11(4), pp. 569-605.
 Heaton, T. H., Hall, J. F., Wald, D. J., Halling, M. W. (1995). “Response of high-rise and base-isolated buildings to a hypothetical Mw 7.0 blind thrust earthquake”. Science, Vol. 267 (13), pp. 206-211.
 Kircher, C.A. (2003). “Development of Seismic Design Criteria for Building Codes”. Kircher & Associates, Palo Alto, CA.
 Kalkan, E., Adalier, K., Pamuk, A., (2004). “Near field effects and engineering implications of recent earthquakes in Turkey”. Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, New York, NY, April 13-17, Paper No. 3-30.
 Mavroeidis, G. P., and Papageorgiou, A. S., (2003). “A mathematical expression of Near-fault ground motions”. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 (3), pp. 1099-1131.
 Memarpour, M.M. (2005). “Investigation of failure reasons of bridges in recent earthquakes.” M.Sc. Thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
 Newmark, N. M., Blume J. A., Kapur K. K., (1973). “Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants”. Journal of the Power Division, Vol.99, pp. 287-303.
 Priestly, MJ. N., Seible, F., Calvi G. M., (1996). “Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges”. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
 SAP 2000. Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures, Version Advanced 10.01, 2005.
 SeismoSignal. SeismoSoft, Version 3.1.0, 2006.
 Silva, W. J. (1997). “Characteristics of vertical ground motions for applications to engineering design” Proceedings of the FHWA/NCEER Workshop on the National Representation of Seismic Ground Motion for New and Existing Highway Facilities, Technical Report NCEER-97-0010.
 Somerville, P. G., (1998). ”Development of an improved representation of near-fault ground motions” SMIP98, Proceedings, Seminar on Utilization of Strong-Motion Data, Oakland, CA, Sept. 15, California Division of Mines and Geology, Sacramento, CA, pp. 1-20.
 Somerville, P. G., Smith, N., Graves, R., Abrahamson, N., (1997). ”Modification of empirical strong motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture directivity”. Seismol, Res. Lett. Vol. 68, pp. 180-203.
 Uniform Building Code (UBC). (1997) International Conference of Building Officials, Structural Design Provisions.