Soft Story Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures with Masonry Infill Walls

Document Type : Regular Paper

Authors

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Based on the seismic design codes to prevent soft-story failure, columns of a soft story must be designed for amplified loads due to the discontinuity of braces or shear walls in that story. Because of the masonry infill walls discontinuity, Soft story failure has been reported in the recent earthquakes. Most national seismic design codes don't consider the effect of masonry infill walls for the design of the soft story. This paper aims to investigate the soft story failure and then present a simple formula for the design of soft-story in moment resisting frame structures. In this paper, the different arrangements of masonry infill walls are considered. Structural modeling was carried out based on reliable parameters and some national or international seismic design codes. By using nonlinear static analysis, a simple methodology is proposed and the main result is a simple formula that can be used for the engineering design of concrete moment resistant frames.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]     Tabeshpour MR, Golafshani AA, Hosseini Gelekolai SM. The Overstrength Factor in Soft Stoy Design due to Removal of Masonry Infill Walls (in Persian). 1st Natl. Conf. Stracture, Earthq. Geotech., Babolsar, Iran: 2010.
[2]     S. M. Hosseini-Gelekolai1 MRT. Soft Story Design in Reinforced Concrete Structure and Effect of Masonry Infill Wall. Sixth Int. Conf. Seismol. Earthq. Eng., 2011, p. 1–8.
[3]     Naderpour H, Rezazadeh Eidgahee D, Fakharian P, Rafiean AH, Kalantari SM. A new proposed approach for moment capacity estimation of ferrocement members using Group Method of Data Handling. Eng Sci Technol an Int J 2020;23:382–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2019.05.013.
[4]     Vicente RS, Rodrigues H, Varum H, Costa A, Mendes da Silva JAR. Performance of masonry enclosure walls: lessons learned from recent earthquakes. Earthq Eng Eng Vib 2012;11:23–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-012-0095-3.
[5]     Mota Silva JC, Bastos L de S, Santos da Silva JG. Human Comfort Assessment of Buildings Considering the Effect of the Masonry Infills and the Soil-Structure Interaction. Comput. Eng. Phys. Model., vol. 2, 2019, p. 38–52.
[6]     Hosseini Gelekolai SM, Golafshani AA, Tabeshpour MR. Design of Soft Story in Reinforced Concrete Structure due to Removal of Masonry Infill Wall. Sharif University of Technology, 2010.
[7]     Tabeshpour MR. Masonry infills in structural frames (Handbook, Part 18) (in Persian). Tehran, Iran: FadakIsatis Publisher; 2009.
[8]     Tabeshpour MR. Seismic retrofit of infilled frames (Handbook, Part 19) (in Persian). Tehran, Iran: FadakIsatis Publisher; 2009.
[9]     Tabeshpour MR, Azad A, Golafshani AA. Seismic Behavior and Retrofit of Infilled Frame. Earthquake-Resistant Struct. - Des. Assessment, Rehabil., InTech, Croatia; 2012.
[10]   Shahsahebi A, Waezi Z, Hashemi MJ. Seismic performance assessment of multi-story RC buildings with soft-story collapse mechanism equipped with gapped inclined bracing (GIB). Structures 2020;28:2448–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2020.10.068.
[11]   Moghaddam H, Hosseini Gelekolai SM. Optimum Seismic Design of Short to Mid-Rise Steel Moment Resisting Frames Based on Uniform Deformation Theory. J Seismol Earthq … 2017;19:13–24.
[12]   Harati M, Mashayekhi M, Khansefid A, Pourzeynali S, Bahar A. Nonlinear behavior of RC shear walls: From experiments to the field reports 2020. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.31639.52647.
[13]   Building and Housing Research Center. Iranian Seismic Code of Practice (Standard No. 2800), 3rd edition. Tehran, Iran: 2005.
[14]   Building and Housing Research Center. Iranian Seismic Code of Practice (Standard No. 2800), 4rd edition. Tehran, Iran: 2014.
[15]   Arma─čan KORKMAZ K, Demr F, Svr M. Earthquake Assessment of R/C Structures with Masonry Infill Walls. Int J Sci Technol 2017;2:155–64.
[16]   Mostafaei H, Toshimi K. Effect of infill masonry walls on the seismic response of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the 2003 Bam earthquake strong motion: a case study of Bam telephone center. Bull Earthq Res Institute, Univ Tokyo 2004;79:133–56.
[17]   Committee BD-004. Australian Standard AS 3700 Masonry Structures. 2018.
[18]   Kanchidurai S, Krishnan PA, Baskar K. Compressive strength estimation of mesh embedded masonry prism using empirical and neural network models. J Soft Comput Civ Eng 2020;4:24–35. https://doi.org/10.22115/SCCE.2020.228611.1213.
[19]   Fakharian P, Rezazadeh Eidgahee D, Akbari M, Jahangir H, Ali Taeb A. Compressive strength prediction of hollow concrete masonry blocks using artificial intelligence algorithms. Structures 2023;47:1790–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2022.12.007.
[20]   Hashemi A, Mosalam KM. Shake-table experiment on reinforced concrete structure containing masonry infill wall. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 2006;35:1827–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.612.
[21]   the Building Industry Authority. Assessment and Improvement of the Structural Performance of Buildings in Earthquake. 2002.
[22]   McKenna F, Fenves GL, Scott MH. Open system for earthquake engineering simulation (OpenSees). Univ California, Berkeley, CA 2000.
[23]   Mazzoni S, McKenna F, Scott MH, Fenves GL. OpenSees command language manual. Pacific Earthq Eng Res Cent 2006;264:137–58.
[24]   Hosseini Gelekolai SM, Kenarangi H. Application of Opensees Software in Structural Modeling and Analysis. Tehran, Iran: Azadeh Publications.(In Persian); 2013.
[25]   Hashemi A, Mosalam KM. Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Including Effects of Masonry Infill Walls. Pacific Earthq Engineeering Cent 2007:1–250.
[26]   Taucer F, Spacone E, Filippou FC. A fiber beam-column element for seismic response analysis of reinforced concrete structures. vol. 91. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University …; 1991.
[27]   Moghaddam H, Hajirasouliha I, Hosseini Gelekolai SM. Performance-based seismic design of moment resisting steel frames: Adaptive optimisation framework and optimum design load pattern. Structures 2021;33:1690–704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2021.05.014.
[28]   Moghaddam H, Hosseini Gelekolai SM, Hajirasouliha I, Tajalli F. Evaluation of Various Proposed Lateral Load Patterns for Seismic Design of Steel Moment Resisting Frames. 15th World Conf Earthq Eng 2012.
[29]   Moghaddam H, Hosseini Gelekolai SM, Hajirasouliha I. More efficient lateral load patterns for seismic design of steel moment-resisting frames. Proc Inst Civ Eng - Struct Build 2018;171:487–502. https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.17.00064.
[30]   Hashmi AK, Madan A. Damage forecast for masonry infilled reinforced concrete framed buildings subjected to earthquakes in India. Curr Sci 2008;94:61–73.
[31]   Sattar S, Liel AB. Seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures with and without masonry infill walls. 9th US Natl. 10th Can. Conf. Earthq. Eng. 2010, Incl. Pap. from 4th Int. Tsunami Symp., vol. 3, 2010, p. 1864–73.
[32]   Moghaddam H, Hosseini Gelekolai SM. OPTIMAL SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES. 7th Int. Conf. Seismol. Earthq. Eng., Tehran, Iran: 2015.
[33]   Moghaddam H, Hosseini Gelekolai SM, Hajirasouliha I. OPTIMUM SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL MOMENT RESISITING FRAMES USING TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS. 16th World Conf. Earthq. Eng. 16WCEE, Santiago Chile: 2017.
[34]   Moghaddam H, Moini B, Hosseini Gelekolai SM. Rehabilitation of Steel Moment Resisting Frames using Friction Dampers. 9th Natl. Congr. Civ. Eng., Mashhad, Iran: 2016.
[35]   Hosseini Gelekolai SM. Application of Adaptive Method in Optimum Seismic Design of Steel Moment Resisting Frames and Dampers. Sharif University of Technology, 2018.