Numerical Study on the Flexural Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 M.Sc., Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Enhancement of the response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams applying fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement bars has become a popular structural technique over the past two decades as a result to the well-known advantages of FRP composites including their high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. This study presents numerical investigation of 20 concrete beams internally reinforced with GFRP bars without web reinforcement. The accuracy of the non-linear finite element model in ABAQUS software is first validated against experimental data from the literature. The study presents an investigation into the behaviour of FRP reinforced concrete beams including the evaluation of geometrical properties effects. In particular, the study is focused on the effects of span/depth ratio, the reinforcement ratio and the effective depth of the beam, aiming to correct deficiencies in this area in existing knowledge. It’s been revealed that the finite element model is capable of accurately simulating the flexural behaviour of FRP reinforced beams. It was able to predict, with high accuracy, the force-displacement response the beam. Results manifested that FRP reinforcement is a proper solution in order to boost the ductility of RC beam members. Moreover, although that increasing in the span/depth ratio of the beam decreases beam’s rigidity, however; it also postpones the yielding point in the beam’s flexural response and leads to a higher level of displacement ductility for the beam.


Main Subjects

[1] Meier U., (1987). “Bridge Repair with High Performance Composite Materials”, Material und Technik, Vol. 15, pp. 125-128 (in German and in French).
[2] Andermatt M., Lubell A., (2013). “Behavior of concrete deep beams reinforced with internal fiber-reinforced polymer–experimental study”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 110, pp 585–594.
[3] Duthinh D., Starnes M., (2001). “Strength and Ductility of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Carbon FRP and Steel”, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.
[4] Oller W., Marí A., Bair J.M., Cladera A., (2015). “Shear design of reinforced concrete beams with FRP longitudinal and transverse reinforcement”, Journal of Composites, Part-B, Vol. 74, pp. 104-122.
[5] El-Nemr A., Ahmed E., Benmokrane, B., (2013). “Flexural Behavior on serviceability of normal and high-strength concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.110(6), pp. 1077-1088.
[6] Arivalagan, S., (2012). “Engineering of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars and stainless steel”, Structural Engineering, Glob J Inc, Vol.12(1), pp. 1-6.
[7] Ahmed E.A., Benmokrane B., Sansfacon, M., (2017). “Case study: Design, construction, and performance of the la chanceliere parking Garage’s concrete flat slabs reinforced with GFRP bars”, ASCE Journal of Composite for Construction, Vol.21(1), 05016001, 15 p.
[8] Yong, M., J., Min, K., H., Shin, O., H., and Yoon Y., S., (2012). “Effect of steel and synthetic fibers on flexural behavior of high-strength concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars”, Composite Part B, Engineering, Vol.43(3), pp. 1077-1086.
[9] Adam M.A., Said M., Mahmoud A.A., Shanour A.S., (2015). “Analytical and experimental flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars”, Construction and Building Materials, 84, pp. 354-366.
[10] Kassem C, Farghaly AS, Benmokrane B. (2011). “Evaluation of flexural behavior and serviceability performance of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars”, ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction. Vol.15(5), pp. 682-695.
[11] Theriault M., Benmokrane B., (1998). “Effects of FRP reinforcement ratio and concrete strength on flexural behaviour of concrete beams”, ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction, 2, pp. 7-16.
[12] Yoo D.Y., Shin H.O., Kwon K.Y., Yoon Y.S. (2014). “Structural behavior of UHPFRC beams according to reinforcement ratio of internal GFRP bar”, In: El-Haacha R, editor, The 7th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2014), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC).
[13] Issa M.S., Metwally I.M., Elzeiny S.M. (2011). “Influence of fibers on flexural behavior and ductility of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars”, Engineering Structures, 33, pp. 1754-1763.
[14] Yoo, D.Y., Banthia, N., Yoon, Y.S., (2016). “Predicting service deflection of ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars”, Composite Part B, 99.
[15] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2015). “Evaluation of the flexural strength and serviceability of geopolymer concrete beams reinforced with glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars”, Engineering Structures, 101, pp. 529-541.
[16] Maranan G.B., Manalo A.C., Karunasena W., Benmokrane B., (2015). “Pullout behaviour of GFRP bars with anchor head in geopolymer concrete”, Composite Structures, 132, pp. 1113-1121.
[17] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Karunasena, K., Benmokrane, B., (2014). “Bond stress-slip behavior: case of GFRP bars in geopolymer concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol.27 (1), 04014116.
[18] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2018), “Shear behaviour of geopolymer-concrete beams transversely reinforced with continuous rectangular GFRP composite spirals”, Composite Structures, 187, pp. 454-465.
[19] Maranan, G.B., Manalo, A.C., Benmokrane, B., Karunasena, W., Mendis, P., (2017). “Shear Behavior of Geopolymer Concrete Beams Reinforced with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.114 (2).
[20] Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc., (2007). “ABAQUS theory manual”, user manual and example Manual, Version 6.7.
[21] Hognestad E., Hanson N.W.., McHenry D., (1955). Concrete stress distribution in ultimate strength design, ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 53(12), pp. 455-479.
[22] CEB-FIP, (2013). „fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010“, Ernst & Sohn, A wily Brand.
[23] Lubliner, J., Oliver, J., Oller, S., And Onate, E., (1989). “A Plastic-Damage Model for Concrete”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 25(3), pp. 299-326.
[24] Dey, Sandip, (2014). “Seismic performance of Composite Plate Shear Walls”, PhD Thesis, Concordia University Montreal, Canada.
[25] Metwally I.M., (2017). “Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete deep beam reinforced with GFRP bars”, HBRC Journal, Vol. 13(1), pp. 25-38.
[26] Dhanasekar, M., Haider, W., (2008), “Explicit finite element analysis of lightly reinforced masonry shear walls”, Computers and Structures, Vol. 86, pp. 15–26.
[27] Obaidat Y.T., (2011). “Structural Retrofitting of Concrete Beams Using FRP”, Department of Construction Sciences, Structural Mechanics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
[28] Rafiei, Shahryar, (2011). “Behaviour of Double Skin Profiled Composite Shear Wall System under In-plane Monotonic”, Cyclic and Impact Loadings, PhD Thesis, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.