Performance Evaluation of a Trunk-A Road in North Central Nigeria

Document Type : Regular Paper


Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria


Pavement maintenance and rehabilitation have been neglected in Nigeria for a very long time and has resulted to maintenance backlog. Design agencies in Nigeria still use California Bearing Ratio (CBR), even though the method is outdated. An introduction of Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) was pertinent, even though the method is relatively old in some developed countries, it has not gain much prominence in Nigeria. A flexible pavement, constructed from Bida to Mokwa,, Nigeria, was Rehabilitated after 22 years of construction. This was done by placement of stone base course in one section and lateritic base course in the other. The stretch of the road was then overlaid with asphalt surfacing. Before commencement of the rehabilitation, DCPT tests were conducted on the road to evaluate performance of the pavement base and subgrade. Two years after the rehabilitation, an evaluation was carried out at five selected positions (two at crushed stone base and three at lateritic base) to evaluate the performance of the two base courses. The evaluation was carried out by coring the asphalt concrete and DCPT test below the hole created by corer to indirectly estimate the in-situ CBR of the base and subgrade courses. The results from both the stone base and lateritic base sections satisfy the minimum specifications based on standard. The study also showed that pavement failure along the road is not as a result of the materials used in the base course, but as a result of the excessive axle loads experienced by the road.


[1] Enwerem, G. C. and Ali, G. A. (2016). Economic Effects of Bad Roads on Vehicle Maintenance in Nigeria, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6(6): 761-766.
[2] Singh, G. and Singh, J. (1991). Highway Engineering. Standard Publishers Distributors, Nai, Sarak, India.
[3] Oguara, T. M. (2010). A management model for road infrastructure maintenance. Book of proceedings, 19th engineering assembly, Council for the regulation of engineering in Nigeria.
[4] Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2003). Highway Maintenance in Nigeria; Lessons from Other Countries, Research Department Occasional Paper No. 27.
[5] Okigbo, N. (2012). Causes of Highway Failures in Nigeria, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), 4 (11): 4695-4703.
[6] Obeta, I. N. and Njoku, J. E. (2016). Durability of Flexible Pavements: A Case Study of South-Eastern Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Technology, 35 (2): 297-305.
[7] Salih, J. Edum-Fotwe, F. and Price, A. (2016). Investigating the Road Maintenance Performance in Developing Countries, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering,10 (4): 395-399.
[8] Adlinge, S. S. and Gupta, A.K. (2013). Pavement Deterioration and its Causes, International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 2(4): 437-450
[9] Qiao, Y., Santos, J., Stoner, A. M. K. and Flinstch, G. (2009). Climate Change Impacts on Asphalt Road Pavement Construction and Maintenance, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2009: 1-14.
[10] Sarsam, S. I. (2016). Pavement Maintenance Management System: A Review, STM Journals, 3 (2): 19-30.
[11] Kermani, M. R. S. and Jam, A. N. (2016). Modifying PIARC’s Linear Model of Accident Severity Index to Identify Roads’ Accident Prone Spots to Rehabilitate Pavements Considering Nonlinear Effects of the Traffic Volume, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 4 (2): 45-51.
[12] Donev, V. and Hoffmann, M. (2018). Optimization of Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Activities, Timing and Work Zones for Short Survey Sections and Multiple Distress Types, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, (2018): 1-25.
[13] Sahin, H., Narciso, P. and Hariharan, N. (2013). Developing a Five-Year Maintenance and Rehabilitation (M&R) Plan for HMA and Concrete Pavement Networks, ICCEN 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, 9: 230-234.
[14] Rusu, L., Taut, D. A. S. and Jecan, S. (2015). An Integrated Solution for Pavement Management and Monitory Systems, 22nd International “Economic Conference-IECS 2015, Economic Prospects in the Context of Growing Global and Regional Interdependance”, 27: 14-21.
[15] Karim, F. M. A., Rubasi, K. A. H. and Saleh, A. B. (2016). The Road Pavement Condition Index (PCI), Evaluation and Maintenance: A Case Study of Yemen, Journal of Organization, Technology and Management in Construction, 8: 1446-1455.
[16] Ewadh, H. A., Almuhanna, R. and Alasadi, S. (2018). Developing Optimized Prioritizing Road Maintenance, MATEC Web of Conferences, 162: 1-7.
[17] Pantuso, A., Loprencipe, G., Bonin, G. and Teltayev, B. B. (2019). Analysis of Pavement Condition Survey Data for Effective Implementation of a Network Level Pavement Management Program for Kazakhstan, Sustainability, 11(901): 1-16.
[18] Keymanesh, M. R., Nasrollahtabar, A. and Shahriari, N. (2018). Internal Structure Features of Asphalt Mixture for Field Samples, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, (1): 10-22.
[19] Arabani, H. P. S., Sadrmomtazi, A., Langaroudi, M. A. M., Khoshkbijari, R. K. and Amooie, M. (2017). Durability of Self-compacting Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (LWSCC) as Repair Overlays, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 5-2 (2007): 99-111.
[20] SadrMomtazi, A. and Khoshkbijari, R. K. (2017). An Investigation on In-Situ Strenght and Bonding Strenght of Polymer Modified Concretes (PMC) as Repair Overlays on Conventional Concrete Substrate, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 5 (1): 67-78.
[21] Kavussi, A., Solatifar, N. and Abbasghorbani, M. (2016). Mechanistic-Emperical Analysis of Asphalt Dynamic Modulus for Rehabilitation Projects in Iran, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 4 (1): 18-29.
[22] Khodakarami, M. I. and Moghaddam, H. K. (2017). Evaluation the Performance of Rehabilitated Roadway Base with Geogrid Reinforcement in the Presence of Soil-Geogrid-Interaction, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, Vol. 5 (1): 33-46.
[23] Gill, K. S., Jha, J. N. and Choudhary, A. K. (2010). CBR Value Estimate using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, Indian Geotechnical Conference, Geotrends IGS, Mumbai Chapter and IIT Bombay.
[24] Scala, A. J. (1959). Simple Method of Flexible Pavement Design using Cone Penetrometers, Proceedings of 2nd Australian-New Zealand Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, New Zealand.
[25] ASTM 6951-03 (2003). Standard Test Method for Use of the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Shallow Pavement Applications, West Conshohcken, PA.
[26] Mohammadi S. D., Nikudel, M. R., Rahimi, H. and Khamehchiyan, M. (2012). Unit Skin Friction from Extended Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (EDCP) Test Supplemented by Measurement of Torgue within Testing Wells. IJST Transactions of Civil Engineering, 36(C1): 115-119.
[27] Czado, B. and Pietras, J. S. (2012). Comparison of the Cone Penetration Resistance Obtained in static and Dynamic Field Tests. AGH Journal of Mining and Geoengineering, 36(1): 97-105.
[28] Kumar, R. S., Ajmi, A. S. and Valkati, B. (2015). Comparative Study of Subgrade Soil Strength Estimation Models Developed Based on CBR, DCP and FWD Test Results, International Advance Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(8): 92-102.
[29] Jones, D. and Harvey, J. (2005). Relationship between DCP, Stifness, Shear Strength and R Value. California Dept. of Transportation, Office of the Road Research.
[30] Patel, M. A. and Patel, H. S. (2012). Experimental Study to Correlate the Test Results of PBT, UCS, and CBR with DCP on various Soils in soaked Condition, International Journal of Engineering, 6(5): 244-261.
[31] Ette, I. E. (2010). Challenges of sustainable infrastructural development, Proceedings of 19th Engineering Assembly, Council for the regulation of engineering in Nigeria, 18.
[32] Obaje, N. G. (2009). Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
[33] Adeleye, D. R. (1973). Origin of Ironstones: An Example from the Mid-Niger Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 43: 709–727.
[34] Akande, S. O., Ojo, O. J., Erdtmann, B. D., Hetenyi, M. (2005.) Paleoenvironments, Organic Petrology and Rock-Eval Studies on Source Rock Facies of the Lower Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 41: 394–406.
[35] Highway Manual Code of Procedure (2013). Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
[36] TRL. (2008). TRL Dynamic Cone Penetrometer. Transport Research laboratory, UK.
[37] ASTM D6927-15. (2015). Standard Test Method for Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Mixtures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
[38] ASTM D2172/D2172M-11. (2011). Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Asphalt Binder from Asphalt Mixtures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.