An Investigation of Performance of Masonry Wall Reinforced with Timber lumbers

Document Type : Regular Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Student of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology (KNTU), Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

Abstract

The current article seeks to investigate the behavior of masonry wall reinforced with timber lumbers and effect of timbers on increasing the shear strength and ductility of wall. To determine the mechanical properties of the timbers, two experiments according to ASTM D143 were performed. All of the mechanical properties required for timber simulation were determined via tensile and compressive tests, and using parametric equations. The behavior of the timbers under tensile force was brittle, and under pressure was semi-ductile. Hill yield criterion was utilized for timber behavior modelling. Predictably, the location of the plastic strain formation in the tensile and compressive specimen was consistent with the location of the fracture in the experimental specimens. In the next parts of the research, the obtained parameters were used to model the mechanical behavior of the timbers. Macro and meso approaches were used for the numerical modeling of the masonry wall. The Willam–Warnke yield criterion was used on the macro scale, and the cohesive-frictional interface constitutive model was utilized on the meso scale. Both numerical models were in good agreement with the laboratory results. However, due to the gap and sliding of the masonry wall in the numerical model, the Meso scale was used in the research. The masonry wall was retrofitted and strengthened by three different patterns of timber placement. An examination of the analysis results showed that by placing the timbers, the wall cracking pattern tends to change, and the ductility and shear capacity of the wall considerably enhances.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]     Tomasi, R. and Sartori, T. (2013). Mechanical behaviour of connections between wood framed shear walls and foundations under monotonic and cyclic load, Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 44: p. 682-690. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.02.055.
[2]     Seim, W., Hummel, J. and Vogt, T. (2014). Earthquake design of timber structures–Remarks on force-based design procedures for different wall systems. Journal of Engineering Structures, 76: p. 124-137. DOI 10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.06.037.
[3]     Parisi, M.A. and Piazza, M. (2015). Seismic strengthening and seismic improvement of timber structures. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 97: p. 55-66. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.093.
[4]     Steiger, R., et al., (2015). Strengthening of timber structures with glued-in rods. Journal of Construction and building materials, 97: p. 90-105. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.03.097.
[5]     Anil, Ö., et al., (2016). Hysteretic behavior of timber framed shear wall with openings. Journal of Construction and Building Materials,  116: p. 203-215. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.068.
[6]     Bedon, C., Rinaldin, G. and  Fragiacomo, M. (2015). Non-linear modelling of the in-plane seismic behaviour of timber Blockhaus log-walls. Journal of Engineering Structures, 91: p. 112-124. DOI 10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.03.002.
[7]     Guíñez, F., Santa María, H. and  Almazán, J.L. (2019). Monotonic and cyclic behaviour of wood frame shear walls for mid-height timber buildings. Journal of Engineering Structures, 189: p. 100-110. DOI 10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.03.043.
[8]     Ceroni, F. and Di Ludovico, M. (2020). Traditional and innovative systems for injected anchors in masonry elements: Experimental behavior and theoretical formulations. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 254: p. 119178. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119178.
[9]     Estrella, X., et al., (2020). Efficient nonlinear modeling of strong wood frame shear walls for mid-rise buildings. Journal of Engineering Structures, 215: p. 110670. DOI 10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.110670.
[10]    Carrero, T., et al., (2020). Static and dynamic performance of direct hybrid connections of cross-laminated timber with steel, concrete and laminated strand lumber composites. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 17(4). DOI 10.1590/1679-78256106 .
[11]    Marzaleh, A.S., et al., (2018). OSB sheathed light-frame timber shear walls with strong anchorage subjected to vertical load, bending moment, and monotonic lateral load. Journal of Engineering Structures, 173: p. 787-799. DOI 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.05.044.
[12]    Jayamon, J.R., Line, P. and  Charney, F.A. (2018). State-of-the-art review ondamping in wood-frame shear wall structures. American Society of Civil Engineers. DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0002212.
[13]    Casagrande, D., et al., (2020). A methodology to determine the seismic low-cycle fatigue strength of timber connections. Journal of  Construction and Building Materials, 231: p. 117026. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117026.
[14]    Standard, A., D143. (2014). Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. DOI 10.1520/D0143-14.
[15]    Green, D.W., Winandy, J.E. and Kretschmann, D.E. (1999). Mechanical properties of wood. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, General technical report FPL; GTR-113: Pages 4.1-4.45.
[16]    Hong, J.-P., (2007). Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model for single and multiple dowel-type wood connections. University of British Columbia. DOI 10.14288/1.0066597.
[17]    Kouris, L.A.S. and Kappos, A.J.,(2012).Detailed and simplified non-linear models for timber-framed masonry structures. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 13(1), p.47-58. DOI 10.1016/j.culher.2011.05.009.
[18]    Vermeltfoort, A.T., T. Raijmakers, and Janssen, H. (1993). Shear tests on masonry walls.
[19]    Akhaveissy, A., (2013). Limit state strength of unreinforced masonry structures. Journal of  Earthquake spectra, 29(1): p. 1-31. DOI 10.1193/1.4000097.
[20]    Petracca, M., et al., (2017). Micro-scale continuous and discrete numerical models for nonlinear analysis of masonry shear walls. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 149: p. 296-314. DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.130.
[21]    Menetrey, P., (1994). Numerical analysis of punching failure in reinforced concrete structures. EPFL. DOI 10.5075/epfl-thesis-1279.
[22]    Menétrey, P., (2002). Synthesis of punching failure in reinforced concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 24(6): p. 497-507. DOI 10.1016/S0958-9465(01)00066-X.
[23]    Alfano, G. and Crisfield, M.A. (2001). Finite element interface models for thedelamination analysis of laminated composites: mechanical and computational issues. International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 50(7): p. 1701-1736. DOI 10.1002/nme.93.
[24]    Park, K. and Paulino, G.H. (2011). Cohesive zone models: a critical review of traction-separation relationships across fracture surfaces. Journal of Applied Mechanics Reviews, 64(6). DOI 10.1115/1.4023110.
[25]    Nguyen, V.P., et al., (2017). Modelling hydraulic fractures in porous media using flow cohesive interface elements. Journal of  Engineering Geology, 225: p. 68-82. DOI 10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.04.010.
[26]    Feng, D.-C. and Wu, J.-Y. (2018).  Phase-field regularized cohesive zone model (CZM) and size effect of concrete. Journal of Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 197: p. 66-79. DOI 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.04.038.
[27]    Yang, Z.-J., Li, B.-B. and Wu, J.-Y.  (2019). X-ray computed tomography images based phase-field modeling of mesoscopic failure in concrete. Journal of  Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 208: p. 151-170. DOI 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2019.01.005.
[28]    Roland, J.P.A.K.B. and Wenk, B.T. (2020). Characterization of mortar–timber and timber–timber cyclic friction in timber floor connections of masonry buildings. Materials and Structures, 53: p. 51. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.3348328.
[29]    FEMA, A., 440, (2005).Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures. FEMA-440, Redwood City, 7(9): p. 11.
[30]    Tomaževič, M., Earthquake-resistant design of masonry buildings. 1999: World Scientific. DOI 10.1142/p055.
[31]    Mohammadi Nikou, M., Akhaveissy, A., (2018). Evaluation of the seismic performance of masonry walls reinforced with wooden elements. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, 5(2),p. 113-133. DOI 10.22065/jsce.2017.86039.1175
[32]    Mohamadi Nikou, M., Ahakhaveissy, A., (2019). The role of wooden elements for improving seismic performance and cracking paterns of masonry walls. Sharif Journal of Civil Engineering, 35.2(2.2),p. 143-152. DOI 10.24200/j30.2018.1845.1981.
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Serial Number 21
February 2021
Pages 114-138
  • Receive Date: 13 December 2017
  • Revise Date: 05 November 2020
  • Accept Date: 10 November 2020
  • First Publish Date: 10 November 2020