Influence of Crumb Rubber Incorporated with Different Warm Mix Asphalt Additives on the Mechanical Performance of WMA Mixture

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Benghazi University, Benghazi, Libya

2 Department of Highway and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

3 Department of Geotechnics & Transportation, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

4 Building and Construction Eng., Technical College of Mosul, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq

5 Department of Civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, P.M.B 1061 Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria


The compacting and mixing processes involving hot mix asphalt during asphalt production can lead to air pollution as a result of a high volatile organic compound. An alternative solution that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions is by using warm mix asphalt (WMA). A proper application of additives to the WMA can improve the asphalt mixture's strength, durability, and workability. In this study, a 60/70 grade asphalt binder was added with 5% of crumb rubber (CR) and three different WMA additives at the recommended dosages, namely Sasobit, Cecabase, and Rediset. The wet method was used to blend the additives with virgin asphalt binders. The mixing and compacting temperatures were set at 135°C and 125°C, respectively, to mix the asphalt mixture. Mechanical performance tests were performed to evaluate the impact of WAM additives with CR on asphalt mixture. Based on the results, all the modified asphalt mixtures showed a better mechanical performance than the virgin asphalt mixture in terms of indirect tensile strength, moisture resistance, permanent deformation, and stiffness. Among all the WMA additives, Sasobit with CR showed the most significant impact on the asphalt mixture's performance.


Main Subjects

[1]     Silva, H. M. R. D. D., Oliveira, J., Ferreira, C. I. G., & Peralta, E. J. F. (2009). Evaluation of the rheological behaviour of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) modified binders.
[2]     Caputo, P., Abe, A. A., Loise, V., Porto, M., Calandra, P., Angelico, R., & Oliviero Rossi, C. (2020). The role of additives in warm mix asphalt technology: An insight into their mechanisms of improving an emerging technology. Nanomaterials, 10(6), 1202.
[3]     Hossain, Z., Zaman, M., O'Rear, E. A., & Chen, D. H. (2012). Effectiveness of water-bearing and anti-stripping additives in warm mix asphalt technology. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 13(5), 424-432.
[4]     Podolsky, J. H., & Williams, R. C. (2014). Estimation and assessment of high temperature mix performance grade for select bio-based WMA additives. Construction and Building Materials, 69, 310-322.
[5]     Guo, N., You, Z., Zhao, Y., Tan, Y., & Diab, A. (2014). Laboratory performance of warm mix asphalt containing recycled asphalt mixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 64, 141-149.
[6]     Kheradmand, B., Muniandy, R., Hua, L. T., Yunus, R. B., & Solouki, A. (2014). An overview of the emerging warm mix asphalt technology. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 15(1), 79-94.
[7]     Airey, G. D., Collop, A. C., Zoorob, S. E., & Elliott, R. C. (2008). The influence of aggregate, filler and bitumen on asphalt mixture moisture damage. Construction and building materials, 22(9), 2015-2024.
[8]     Rodríguez-Alloza, A. M., Gallego, J., & Giuliani, F. (2017). Complex shear modulus and phase angle of crumb rubber modified binders containing organic warm mix asphalt additives. Materials and Structures, 50(1), 77.
[9]     Rodríguez-Alloza, A. M., Gallego, J., Pérez, I., Bonati, A., & Giuliani, F. (2014). High and low temperature properties of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives. Construction and Building Materials, 53, 460-466.
[10]   Al-Jumaili, M. A. H., & Al-Jameel, H. A. E. (2015). Influence of selected additives on warm asphalt mixtures performance. Kufa journal of Engineering, 6(2), 49-62.
[11]   Leandri, P., Rocchio, P., & Losa, M. (2014, April). Identification of the more suitable warm mix additives for crumb rubber modified binders. In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on transportation infrastructure–sustainability, eco-efficiency and conservation in transportation infrastructure asset management (pp. 111-118).
[12]   Akisetty, C. K., Lee, S. J., & Amirkhanian, S. N. (2009). Effects of compaction temperature on volumetric properties of rubberized mixes containing warm-mix additives. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21(8), 409-415.
[13]   Akisetty, C., Xiao, F., Gandhi, T., & Amirkhanian, S. (2011). Estimating correlations between rheological and engineering properties of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing warm mix asphalt additive. Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), 950-956.
[14]   Wang, H., Liu, X., Zhang, H., Apostolidis, P., Scarpas, T., & Erkens, S. (2020). Asphalt-rubber interaction and performance evaluation of rubberised asphalt binders containing non-foaming warm-mix additives. Road materials and pavement design, 21(6), 1612-1633.
[15]   Habal, A., & Singh, D. (2017). Moisture damage resistance of GTR-modified asphalt binders containing WMA additives using the surface free energy approach. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 31(3), 04017006.
[16]   Cao, W. D., Liu, S. T., & Cui, X. Z. (2011). Determination of compacting temperatures of rubberized asphalt mixtures containing warm mix asphalt additives. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 99, pp. 875-880). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.
[17]   Rodríguez-Alloza, A. M., & Gallego, J. (2017). Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives. Materiales de Construcción, 67(327), 123.
[18]   Aman, M. Y., & Hamzah, M. O. (2014). Effects of anti-stripping additives on moisture sensitivity of warm porous asphalt mixtures. International Journal of Construction Technology and Management, 1(1), 10-16.
[19]   Kristjánsdóttir, Ó., Muench, S. T., Michael, L., & Burke, G. (2007). Assessing potential for warm-mix asphalt technology adoption. Transportation Research Record, 2040(1), 91-99.
[20]   Prowell, B. D., Hurley, G. C., & Crews, E. (2007). Field performance of warm-mix asphalt at national center for asphalt technology test track. Transportation Research Record, 1998(1), 96-102.
[21]   Xiao, F., Zhao, W., Gandhi, T., & Amirkhanian, S. N. (2010). Influence of antistripping additives on moisture susceptibility of warm mix asphalt mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 22(10), 1047-1055.
[22]   Ma, T., Wang, H., Zhao, Y., Huang, X., & Wang, S. (2017). Laboratory investigation of crumb rubber modified asphalt binder and mixtures with warm-mix additives. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(2), 185-194.
[23]   Zhang, J., Liu, G., Xu, L., & Pei, J. (2015). Effects of WMA additive on the rheological properties of asphalt binder and high temperature performance grade. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2015.
[24]   Leng, Z., Padhan, R. K., & Sreeram, A. (2018). Production of a sustainable paving material through chemical recycling of waste PET into crumb rubber modified asphalt. Journal of cleaner production, 180, 682-688.
[25]   Lee, S. J., Akisetty, C. K., & Amirkhanian, S. N. (2008). The effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the performance properties of rubberized binders in HMA pavements. Construction and Building Materials, 22(7), 1368-1376.
[26]   Shu, X., & Huang, B. (2014). Recycling of waste tire rubber in asphalt and portland cement concrete: An overview. Construction and Building Materials, 67, 217-224.
[27] Bilema, M., Aman, M., Hassan, N., Haloul, M., & Modibbo, S. (2021). Influence of crumb rubber size particles on moisture damage and strength of the hot mix asphalt. Materials Today: Proceedings.
[28]   Bilema, M. A., Aman, M. Y., Hassan, N. A., Ahmad, K. A., Elghatas, H. M., Radwan, A. A., & Shyaa, A. S. (2018). Moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified modifier warm mix asphalt additive for two different compaction temperatures. E&ES, 140(1), 012072.
[29] Jamshidi, A., Hamzah, M. O., & Aman, M. Y. (2012). Effects of Sasobit® content on the rheological characteristics of unaged and aged asphalt binders at high and intermediate temperatures. Materials Research, 15(4), 628-638.
[30] Hamzah, M. O., Golchin, B., Jamshidi, A., & Chailleux, E. (2015). Evaluation of Rediset for use in warm-mix asphalt: a review of the literatures. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 16(9), 809-831.
[31] Vaitkus, A., Čygas, D., Laurinavičius, A., & Perveneckas, Z. (2009). Analysis and evaluation of possibilities for the use of warm mix asphalt in Lithuania. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 4(2), 80-86.
[32]   Bilema, M. A. M., Aman, M. Y., & Ahmad, K. A. (2017, July). Investigating the Rheological and Physical Properties for Unaged of Crumb Rubber-Modified Binders Containing Warm Mix Asphalt Additive. In Global Civil Engineering Conference (pp. 1389-1400). Springer, Singapore.
[33]   Xie, Z., Shen, J., Fan, W., & Wang, L. (2014). Laboratory investigation of the effect of warm mix asphalt (WMA) additives on the properties of WMA used in China. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 42(5), 1165-1172.
[34]   Kilas, M., Vaitkus, A., & Paliukaite, M. (2010). warm mix asphalts research, analysis and evaluation. In Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. Proceedings of the International Conference (Vol. 10, p. 149). Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Department of Construction Economics & Property.
[35]   Moreno, F., Sol, M., Martín, J., Pérez, M., & Rubio, M. C. (2013). The effect of crumb rubber modifier on the resistance of asphalt mixes to plastic deformation. Materials & Design, 47, 274-280.
[36]   Bagi, A. S., Gomarshi, V., & Shivaraj, B. S. (2014). Mix design properties and moisture sensitivity characteristics of dense bituminous macadam mixes modified with Rediset, a warm mix additive. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3(7), 159-163.
[37]   Wulandari, P. S., & Tjandra, D. (2017). Use of crumb rubber as an additive in asphalt concrete mixture. Procedia engineering, 171, 1384-1389.