Influence of Supplementary Cementitious Material on Estimated Service Life of Structure in Chloride Environment

Document Type : Regular Paper


1 M. Tech, Civil Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

2 Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India


Chloride ingress in concrete leads to deterioration of reinforcement and subsequent distress in concrete. The focus of the present study was to determine the amount of chloride ingress in concrete with and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) using Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) and Rapid Chloride Migration Test (RCMT). A comparison of chloride ingress was made of Control concrete with six other mixtures having varying percentages of fly ash (20% & 30%), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) (30% & 40%), silica fume (5%) as replacement of cement. Compressive strength, RCPT and RCMT tests were evaluated for all the mixtures after 28 and 90 days respectively. A correlation between RCPT and RCMT tests was established. Mixtures containing fly ash as SCM had lesser initial compressive strength compared to mixtures with GGBFS and silica fume. Chloride permeability of concrete mixture with silica fume as SCM has a significant decrease in chloride permeability in both RCPT and RCMT tests at both ages compared to concrete without SCM. Estimation of service life was carried out using Life-365TM software. It was observed that the service life of concrete without SCM was estimated to be 14.8 years while in the concrete with 5% silica fume expected service life was 24.9 years. Thus, the incorporation of supplementary cementitious material in concrete enhances the service life and is a boon to the construction industry.


  • Chloride ion penetration in concrete using different dosages of fly ash, slag and silica fume was evaluated.
  • Correlation between Rapid Chloride Penetration Test and Rapid Chloride Migration Test was established.
  • The service Life of the structure was estimated using Life 365 software.


Main Subjects

[1]     P. K. and M. P. Mehta, Concrete Microstructure, Properties and Materials, Third. Mc Graww Hill.
[2]     ASTM C 1202: Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride. 2005.
[3]     “NT BUILD 492 Concrete, Mortar And Cement-Based Repair Materials: Chloride Migration Coefficient From Non-Steady - State Migration Experiments,” 1999.
[4]     M. C. G. Juenger and R. Siddique, “Recent advances in understanding the role of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 78. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 71–80, Dec. 01, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.03.018.
[5]     S. Sui, F. Georget, H. Maraghechi, W. Sun, and K. Scrivener, “Towards a generic approach to durability: Factors affecting chloride transport in binary and ternary cementitious materials,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 124, no. June, p. 105783, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.105783.
[6]     C. C. Yang, S. C. Chiang, and L. C. Wang, “Estimation of the chloride diffusion from migration test using electrical current,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1560–1567, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.10.002.
[7]     A. R. Bagheri and H. Zanganeh, “Comparison of Rapid Tests for Evaluation of Chloride Resistance of Concretes with Supplementary Cementitious Materials,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1175–1182, 2012, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)mt.1943-5533.0000485.
[8]     O. Sengul and M. A. Tasdemir, “Compressive Strength and Rapid Chloride Permeability of Concretes with Ground Fly Ash and Slag,” 2009, doi: 10.1061/ASCE0899-1561200921:9494.
[9]     A. Farahani and H. Taghaddos, “Prediction of service life in concrete structures based on diffusion model in a marine environment using mesh free, FEM and FDM approaches,” J. Rehabil. Civ. Eng., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 01–14, 2020, doi: 10.22075/JRCE.2020.19189.1380.
[10]   E. Meck and V. Sirivivatnanon, “Field indicator of chloride penetration depth,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1113–1117, Aug. 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00012-7.
[11]   N. Neithalath and J. Jain, “Relating rapid chloride transport parameters of concretes to microstructural features extracted from electrical impedance,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1041–1051, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.02.016.
[12]   R. Cherif, A. E. A. Hamami, and A. Aït-Mokhtar, “Global quantitative monitoring of the ion exchange balance in a chloride migration test on cementitious materials with mineral additions,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 138, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2020.106240.
[13]   K. S. Huang and C. C. Yang, “Using RCPT determine the migration coefficient to assess the durability of concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 167, pp. 822–830, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.109.
[14]   H. Pourahmadi Sefat Arabani, A. SadrMomtazi, M. A. Mirgozar Langaroudi, R. Kohani Khoshkbijari, and M. Amooie, “Durability of Self-compacting Lightweight Aggregate Concretes (LWSCC) as Repair Overlays,” J. Rehabil. Civ. Eng., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 96–108, 2017, doi: 10.22075/jrce.2017.11415.1187.
[15]   J. J. O. Andrade, E. Possan, and D. C. C. Dal Molin, “Considerations about the service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures inserted in chloride environments,” J. Build. Pathol. Rehabil., vol. 2, no. 1, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1007/s41024-017-0025-x.
[16]   S. Jun, U. Jin, S. Soon, and S. Hwa, “Service life prediction of concrete wharves with early-aged crack : Probabilistic approach for chloride diffusion,” Struct. Saf., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 75–83, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.strusafe.2008.03.004.
[17]   E. C. Bentz, “Probabilistic Modeling of Service Life for Structures Subjected to Chlorides,” no. 100, pp. 391–397, 2003.
[18]   M. Nemati, M. Shekarchi, M. Hosein, and M. Moradian, “Prediction of chloride ingress into blended cement concrete : Evaluation of a combined short-term laboratory-numerical procedure,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 162, pp. 649–662, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.064.
[19]   M. Shafikhani and S. E. Chidiac, “Quantification of concrete chloride diffusion coefficient – A critical review,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 99, no. March, pp. 225–250, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2019.03.011.
[20]   U. M. Angst, “Predicting the time to corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 115, no. March 2018, pp. 559–567, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2018.08.007.
[21]   J. Marchand and E. Samson, “Predicting the service-life of concrete structures – Limitations of simplified models,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 515–521, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.01.007.
[22]   IS:12269, Indian Standard for Ordinary Portland Cement, 53 GRADE — Specification. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, 2013.
[23]   Indian and Indian Standards, IS 383 (1970): Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete [CED. 1970.
[24]   IS 3812-1 (2013): Specification for Pulverized Fuel Ash, Part 1: For Use as Pozzolana in Cement, Cement Mortar and Concrete [CED. 2013.
[25]   I. 12089, Indian Standards. 1987.
[26]   IS-1727, “IS 17127- Method of test for pozzolanic materials,” Bur. Indian Stand. New Delhi, 1967.
[27]   Indian Standards and I. Standards, IS 10262 (2009): Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning [CED. 2009.
[28]   IS 516, Indian Standard for Methods Of Tests For Strength Of Concrete. 2004.
[29]   B. M. A Ehlen, M. D. a Thomas, and E. C. Bentz, “Life-365 Service Life Prediction Model TM,” Concr. Int., no. may, pp. 41–46, 2009.